PLANTS AND HUMAN WELFARE LOWER PLANTS AS FOOD ALGAE SERIES REFERENCES Economic Botany – B.P.Pandey. www.Google. co.in
USE OF LOWER PLANTS AS FOOD • The plants have the chlorophyll pigments and they have capacity to prepare their own food. • These autotrophs have the property of capturing inexhaustible energy of sun to synthetic organic compound which are vital for the existence of all life on earth.
ALGAE AS FOOD • From the earliest times several sea weeds have been used as direct source of food to human beings. • High mineral elements important in human and animal physiology are found and makes sea weeds a unique supplement for a well balanced diet.
ALGAE AS FOOD • The sea weeds are the richest source of vitamins i.e vitamin A, B and E are found in abundance in sea weeds. • Several important food stuffs prepared by algae are suimono, mitus and dulse etc,
Caulerpa Chara chondruscrispus - Irish moss
Halophilaspinulosa Hydrodictyon Macrocystispyrifera
FOOD FOR SEA ANIMALS AND FISHES • The algae are used as a direct source of food by several sea animals and fishes • The marine algae are rich in iodine and several other important minerals. • This make the fundamental source of food for all marine animals and in this respect sea is the richest food producing area. • Marine planktonic diatoms together with Dinoflagellate are of fundamental biological importance since all life of sea is dependent upon them.
USE OF ALGAE AS FOOD • Since algae are rich in Vitamins and minerals, they form the most important part of the diet of Japan and China. • In our country a few species of Spirogyra and Oedogoniumare utilized as food in South India • Japan tops the list in using algae as food and they prepare several sea weeds preparations such as Suimono, Mitsu, Dulse, Laver or Nori. • Other countries like Malaya, Indonesia, Burma and Thailand the sea weeds are used as food.
USE OF ALGAE AS FOOD • Spirulina as food source of protein • The two edible species spirulina which is being domesticated and utilized as food supplement are S. maxima and S. platensis • Spirulina is reported to have 60% protein content which is superior to meat, milk, egg and soybean • It is a fine blend of vitamins, complex containing Beta carotene and B1,B2,B6, C and E and B12. • It contains 5-6 % essential fatty acids and more gamma linolenic acid GLA. • Minerals include Selenium, manganese, zinc, copper, iron and chromium.
ALGAE AS AGAR • Agar is a powder obtained from the plant body of marine algae such as Gelidium, Sarconema, Hypnea and Gracilaria • Agar agar is used in the preparation of ice creams, jellies, desserts, in sizing the textiles and clearing many liquids • It is also used in preparing shaving cream, cosmetics and shoe polishes. • In Biological laboratories it is used as artificial media.
Red algae used for agar preparation Fresh water algae
Porphyraperforata Gelidiumpulchrum (red algae)
Agar agar packets Agar powder Algae in fresh water Caulerpasps.
MINERAL CONTENTS • Potassium, sodium and chloride salts are found in the sea weeds. • Iodine surpasses mineral iodine in drinking water and iodized table salt. • Minerals are important in human metabolism and all of them are present as the trace elements of sea weeds. • Copper content was found in Sarconema and Acanthophoraspicigera.
ALGAE AS SOURCE OF VITAMINS • Vitamin B is found in great abundance in almost all phaeophyceae group of sea weeds. • Vitamin B12 content is higher in green and red algae • Chlorella contains thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid , choline, biotin, vitamin B 12 and lipoic acid.
ALGAE AS SOURCE OF VITAMINS Vitamin B is rich in Ulvaporyphyraand Vitamin C is rich in Alariavalida Diatom Nitzschia is rich in Vitamin A that is found in liver oils of many fish
USE OF SEAWEEDS AS FERTILIZERS • Macrocystis and Nereocystis posses 80% of potash in their dry weight. • Sea weeds are a store house of the important potash, ionic sulphate , trace elements and growth substances.
USE OF ALGAE AS FODDER FOR HENS AND MILK CATTLE • Cattle foods can be prepared from seaweeds from the brown algae and the processed food is fed to cattle poultry and even pigs. • The iodine quantity of the milk and eggs may sufficiently increased. • Milk yielding and egg laying capaciy of cattle and poultry will also be enhanced.