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The Great Depression and New Deal.

The Great Depression and New Deal.

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The Great Depression and New Deal.

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  1. The Great Depression and New Deal. By Gary Toon

  2. Thesis • What effects did the great depression and the new deal have on the people all over the world?

  3. Great Depression • It was a slump in North America, Europe, and other places. • It lasted from1929 to 1939. • It was the longest depression ever experienced by the industrialized western world.

  4. overproduction • Factories were producing more than people could afford to buy. • With prices rising faster than salaries, many Americans cut back on their purchases.

  5. The housing and automobile manufacturer were in decline. • Car sales dropped by more than one third. • A nationwide banking crisis also contributed to the depression. • Struggling farmers were finding it Impossible to repay their loans. • Many of the small banks that had loaned farmers money also went out of business.

  6. City banks also failed too. • After the crash, terrified depositors fled into banks and demanded for their money. • More than 5,500 banks closed between 1930 and 1933. • Many depositors were left penniless.

  7. Many workers lost their jobs, which they had even less money to make purchases with. • With declining sales led to more factories closing and layoffs. • Many companies were forced into bankruptcy. • Of course, these bankruptcies caused even more layoffs.

  8. The human cost • The unemployed • Unemployment 3-25% • Salary and hours were cut back (ex:coal miners $7per day compared to now $1 per day. • Growing poverty • Jobless people lined up at soup kitchens • People tried selling apples or pencils for food.

  9. The human cost • Impact on families • fathers (no work) • Children (health problems-lack of food/medical care) • Schools closed (under age of 13 didn’t attend school at all.)

  10. President Hoover • Government help • Reconstruction finance corporation (RFC)-gave money to fund public-works projects ,banks ,insurance companies ,railroads. • Hoover encouraged private charities to set up soup kitchens. • Financial status still got worse.

  11. President Roosevelt • Background • Assistant secretary and vice president in 1920 • 1932 became president • polio (paralyzed in lower body) • HOPE • Roosevelt pledged “The New Deal” • Bank holiday- helped to restore confidence in the banking system.

  12. The New Deal • Goal: provide jobs for the unemployed • Goal: aimed to help industry and tackle rural poverty • Goal: prevent another depression

  13. Obstacles to the New deal • Supreme court • Several new deal measures to be unconstitutional • New deal critics • Went to far in regulating businesses and restricting individual freedom. • Huey long (democratic senator) • Francis Townsend (pensions)

  14. Women in the depression • Workplace • Little competition from men • Trained to become school teachers therefore it was hard to find a job that men had lost. • Wages lower than the men • Most women eventually lost their jobs

  15. First active lady • Eleanor Roosevelt (FDR’S wife) • Overcame her shyness to begin speaking and traveling on his behalf. • Helped transformed the role of the first lady. • Urged FDR to appoint more women to government positions.

  16. African Americans • South and north • South- cotton prices • 1932-more than half AF in the south were unemployed. • AF were usually hired last and fired first.

  17. The Indian new deal • 1924 • Citizenship to native Americans. • John collier- commissioner of Indian affairs

  18. Dust bowl • Black blizzards • Storms that arose so suddenly. • Heading west • Ruined farm families left their dusty homes to find work. • “okies” called this because they came from Oklahoma.

  19. Art and media • John Steinbeck wrote “The Grapes of Wrath” describing the miseries of the dust bowl. • Arts • Depression was the theme for photographers and painters. • Movies and radio • Movies dealt realistically with social problems. • Grapes of wrath, the public enemy

  20. Radio • Part of everyday life • Entertainment/popular bands and comedians • Soap operas

  21. Social Security • Old age insurance-guaranteed retired people a pension. • Aid to dependent children (ADC) • Granted money to help children whose fathers were dead, unemployed or not living with the family.

  22. Lasting labor reforms • New laws • Wagner act- promised workers rights to organize into unions and prohibit unfair business practices. • Also held up collective bargaining-right of a union to negotiate wages and benefits for all of its members.

  23. Scorecard on the new deal • Against the new deal • Too much power to the federal government • Government programs threaten both individual freedom and free enterprise. • For the new deal • Eased many of the problems • Employed millions of jobless people, ending banking crisis, reformed stock market, etc • Restored faith in government.

  24. video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoptH8TqasE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaI5IRuS2aE&feature=PlayList&p=7C9CAF894BCEE1FB&index=3&playnext=2&playnext_from=PL

  25. Work cited • Davidson, James and Stoff, Michael. America History Of Our Nation. New Jersey: Pearson education inc, 2007. • lamb, Annette. “The Great Depression." January 1999.January 1999. http://www.42explore2.com/depresn.htm. • Bryant, Joyce. “The Great Depression and The New Deal." Yale. April 4th 1998. Yale. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1998/4/98.04.04.x.html • Schultz, Stanley. “Liberalism at High Noon: The New Deal." University of Wisconsin. 1998. http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html