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Newton’s 3 rd Law

Newton’s 3 rd Law. Newton’s 3 rd Law. Newton’s 2 nd Law is: A quantitative description of how forces affect motion. BUT : Where do forces come from ? Answer this with EXPERIMENTS !! The results show that forces applied to an object are ALWAYS applied by another object

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Newton’s 3 rd Law

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1. Newton’s 3rd Law

2. Newton’s 3rd Law Newton’s 2nd Lawis: A quantitative description of how forces affect motion. • BUT:Where do forces come from? • Answer this with EXPERIMENTS!! • The results show that forces applied to an object are ALWAYS applied byanotherobject  Newton’s 3rd Law: “Whenever one object exerts a forceF on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and oppositeforce -F on the first object.” • Law of Action-Reaction: “Every action has an equal & opposite reaction”. (Note that action-reaction forces act on DIFFERENTobjects!)

3. “If two objects interact, the force F12 exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude & opposite in direction to the force F21 exerted by object 2 on object 1.” As in the figure Another Statement of Newton’s 3rd Law

4. Example: Newton’s 3rd Law When a force is exerted on an object, that force is caused by another object. Newton’s 3rd Law: “Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first.” If your hand pushes against the edge of a desk (red force vector), the desk pushes back against your hand (purple force vector; the two colors tell us that this force acts on a DIFFERENTobject).

5. Newton’s 3rd LawAlternative Statements 1.ForcesALWAYSoccur in pairs 2.A single isolated forceCANNOTexist 3.The “action force” is equal in magnitude to the “reaction force” & opposite in direction. a. One of the forces is the “action force”, the other is the “reaction force” b. It doesn’t matter which is considered the “action” & which the “reaction” c. The action & reaction forces MUST ACT ON DIFFERENT OBJECTS& be of the same type.

6. Action-Reaction Pairs: Act on Different Objects The key to correct application of Newton’s 3rd Lawis: THE FORCES ARE EXERTED ON DIFFERENT OBJECTS. Make sure you don’t use them as if they were acting on the sameobject. Example An ice skater pushes against a railing. The railing pushes back & this force causes her to move away.

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