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Newton’s 3 rd Law. Newton’s 3 rd Law. Newton’s 2 nd Law is: A quantitative description of how forces affect motion. BUT : Where do forces come from ? Answer this with EXPERIMENTS !! The results show that forces applied to an object are ALWAYS applied by another object

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## Newton’s 3 rd Law

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**Newton’s 3rd Law**Newton’s 2nd Lawis: A quantitative description of how forces affect motion. • BUT:Where do forces come from? • Answer this with EXPERIMENTS!! • The results show that forces applied to an object are ALWAYS applied byanotherobject Newton’s 3rd Law: “Whenever one object exerts a forceF on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and oppositeforce -F on the first object.” • Law of Action-Reaction: “Every action has an equal & opposite reaction”. (Note that action-reaction forces act on DIFFERENTobjects!)**“If two objects interact,**the force F12 exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude & opposite in direction to the force F21 exerted by object 2 on object 1.” As in the figure Another Statement of Newton’s 3rd Law**Example: Newton’s 3rd Law**When a force is exerted on an object, that force is caused by another object. Newton’s 3rd Law: “Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first.” If your hand pushes against the edge of a desk (red force vector), the desk pushes back against your hand (purple force vector; the two colors tell us that this force acts on a DIFFERENTobject).**Newton’s 3rd LawAlternative Statements**1.ForcesALWAYSoccur in pairs 2.A single isolated forceCANNOTexist 3.The “action force” is equal in magnitude to the “reaction force” & opposite in direction. a. One of the forces is the “action force”, the other is the “reaction force” b. It doesn’t matter which is considered the “action” & which the “reaction” c. The action & reaction forces MUST ACT ON DIFFERENT OBJECTS& be of the same type.**Action-Reaction Pairs: Act on Different Objects**The key to correct application of Newton’s 3rd Lawis: THE FORCES ARE EXERTED ON DIFFERENT OBJECTS. Make sure you don’t use them as if they were acting on the sameobject. Example An ice skater pushes against a railing. The railing pushes back & this force causes her to move away.

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