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Higher Education in India

Higher Education in India

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Higher Education in India

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  1. Higher Education in India By DR T.H. CHOWDARY Director: Center for Telecom Management and Studies Fellow: Tata Consultancy Services Chairman: PragnaBharati (intellect India ) Former: Chairman & Managing Director Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited & Information Technology Advisor, Government of Andhra Pradesh T: +91(40) 6667-1191(O) 2784-3121® F: +91 (40) 6667-1111 hanuman.chowdary@tcs.com Talk @ Vignan, Guntur: 29th July 2012

  2. Higher Education in India • Purpose of Education • Spiritual to realise the divine potential • Social and economic for a happy ( Aananda) healthy (niraamaya) hamonious (lokasangraha) life • quotes

  3. No sound superstructure without a firm foundation- Pre University Education, Elementary, Primary, Higher and intermediate education - they form character, impart values, arouse aspiration promote inquiry and aspiration • Pre-university must be predominantly government to promote equality brotherhood, common citizenship and patriotism and nation-hood.

  4. Higher education to be left to private enterprise “Higher education should be left to private enterprise and for meeting national requirements whether in the various industrial, technical arts, belles-letters or fine arts. The State Universities should be purely examining bodies, self-supporting through the fees charged for examinations. Universities will look after the whole of the field of education and will prepare and approve courses of studies in the various departments of education. No private school should be run without the previous sanction of the respective Universities. University charters should be given liberally to anybody of persons of proved worth and integrity, it being always understood that the Universities will not cost the State anything except that it will bear the cost of running a Central Education Department . The foregoing scheme does not absolve the State from running such seminaries as may be required for supplying State needs.” -Mahatma Gandhi, Harijan, 2 October 1937 S663_Mar2012

  5. Professional Colleges by Companies I would revolutionise college education and relate it to national necessities. There would be degrees for mechanical and other engineers. They would be attached to the different industries which should pay for the training of the graduates they need. Thus, the Tatas would be expected to run a college for training engineers under the supervision of the State; the (Textile) Mill Associations would run among them a college for training graduates whom they need. Similarly for the other industries that may be named. Commerce will have its college. There remain arts, medicine and agriculture. Several private arts colleges are today self-supporting. The State would, therefore, cease to run its own Medical colleges would be attached to certified hospitals. As they re popular among monied men, they may be expected, by voluntary contributions, to support medical colleges. And agricultural colleges to be worthy of the name must be self-supporting. I have a painful experience of some agricultural graduates. Their knowledge is superficial. They lack practical experience. But if they had their apprenticeship on farms which are self-sustained and answered the requirements of the country, they would not have t gain experience after getting their degrees and at the expense of their employers.   -Mahatma Gandhi, Harijan, 2 October 1937 S663_Mar2012

  6. Universities in Select countries • *Suggest: Begin having a University for each District • * Every Private Engineering College should be required to grow into a University within 8 years of wind up. • Corporates to found.fund ‘Varsities’. • In India we have 8.8 mln. or 5% of the young in the age group 18 to 23 yrs. in Universities S449_Aug 2010

  7. S &T Personnel(per 1000 persons) S213_Oct 2004

  8. No. of Scientific Papers Published Country 1980 2000 No. of papers/mil. people Y2000 India 4,983 12,217 12.0 China 924 22,061 19.0 S.Korea 175 12,013 270 Brazil 2,215 9,565 70 Israel 5,773 9,292 1,550 Source: Science Citation Index. Inst. For Scientific Information Philadelphia ( E.T 23.08.02) S213_Oct 2004

  9. ‘Varsity Education in the Country • Population of Age group Y 18-23 = 160 mln • Educational Institutions in India High schools Colleges Universities State Self- Others Total funded funded 105,000 13,000 205 95 10 310 S213_Oct 2004

  10. Enrollment of University age (17 to 23) population (1/2) S213_Oct 2004

  11. Enrollment of University age (17 to 23) population 2/2 S213_Oct 2004

  12. Professional Education • About 800 MBA Colleges, produce 70,000 MBAs • About 1,400 engineering Colleges produce over 350,000 Engineers • About 100,000 Engineering grades are ICT-related • Employability of MCA/ICTS TCS/Satyam/Infosys/Wipro 2% to 5% • Dearth of ( competent) teachers • ICTs to overcome this deficiency • SONET (AP) • INTERNET Universities • IGNOU,BRAOU,GOAP use of INSAT • EDUSAT S213_Oct 2004

  13. Varsity Education in the Country • Students in the Varsities (300+) = 8.8 mln I.e 5.5% • This ratio in countries like UK, Japan, Korea,Israel = 15% to 50% • Aim for 15% i.e, about 180 m by 2010 = 27m • We require ( 27-8.8) / 10,000/30,000 = 1800 to 600 Addl. Varsities • @ Rs. 40/50 cr/Varsity; investment = Rs. (30,000 to 90,000) cr! • Governments have no money; not even for fulfilling the Constitutional Obligation of education for all, age 6 to 14Y • Indian students spend Rs.5000 cr./yr in the USA • Private Universities: • Physical & Cyber • Private investment: Domestic & foreign S213_Oct 2004

  14. Government Universities • Vice-Chancellors: • not educationists, not scholars • Selection thro’ canvas • (Caste, religion, region) • Radha Krishnan Commission declared that “we should regard a man’s declared intention of seeking the vice-chancellorship as prima facie evidence of his unfitness for the post”

  15. Professors and Teachers • Unionised • no research • Not role models • Scholarship & intellectual integrity • Sons/daughters don’t like to be teachers • 80/85% expense on salaries • Survive on grants from UGC & government • Student’s fees < 15% • Examinations all the while • No intellectual centers • No influence on society or government • Nil or inadequate hostels • Colleges without playgrounds • Affiliation – An Affliction • Students “bussed” for 3 hours/day • Fleets of buses ( Eng, MBA)

  16. Improvements • Private Universities • All professional colleges by companies • Foreign Universities • Full tax exemption for companies investments in universities • Teachers’ salaries exempt from IT • No fee reimbursements to students; instead merit scholarships & loans • Teacher Exchange agreements with great foreign ‘varsities • Quarters for teachers in varsity/ college sites

  17. University Education • First Universities -1857 ( Calcutta, Bombay, Madras) • Government Commission 1902 • “ to recommend such measures as may tend to elevate the standard of university teaching and to promote the advancement of learning” . • University Act of 1904 (Syndicate, Senate….) • Calcutta University Commission -1919 • University Education Commission – 1948-’49 (Chairman: Sir S. Radhakrishnan 2100 pages!) • Kothari Commission – 1964-’66 • National Policy on Education 1985-86 (the Rajiv impulse) • Rama Murthi Committee -1996 • Knowledge Commission –Oct 2005 to Oct 2008 (more universities; IT)

  18. “Higher education makes us foreigners in our country and the primary education being practically of no use in after-life becomes almost useless. - M.K.Gandhi Education Reconstruction -1939