American Psychological Association (APA) 6th Edition Don Conant, Ph.D.
Overview • Over the next few slides, we will • Review APA citation format • Review how and when to cite a source • Review APA reference format • Review APA style rules
Citation Format • There are two ways to cite a source in the text of a sentence: • You can use a parenthetical citation: There are not many changes between the 5th and 6th editions of the APA Publication Manual (Rivers, 2009). • Or, you can use an in-text citation: Rivers (2009) indicated that there are not many changes between the 5th and 6th editions of the APA Publication Manual. • The latter is preferred as it demonstrates a higher involvement with the literature.
Citation Format There is a table (Table 6.1) in the APA manual that demonstrates all variations of citation. Source with one author Parenthetical: (Sinatra, 2007) In-text: Sinatra (2007) Source with two authors Parenthetical: (Sinatra & Garland, 2007) In-text: Sinatra and Garland (2007) Source with three to six authors First parenthetical: (Sinatra, Garland, & Fitzgerald, 2007) Second and subsequent parenthetical: (Sinatra et al., 2007) First in-text: Sinatra, Garland, and Fitzgerald (2007) Second and subsequent in-text: Sinatra et al. (2007) Source with seven or more authors Parenthetical: (Sinatra et al., 2007) In-text: Sinatra et al. (2007) There are some variations on multi-author source citations if you have more than one source by the same authors. Check pp. 175-176 in the APA manual.
Citation Format Personal communication Parenthetical: (H. R. Marshall, personal communication, September 17, 2009) In-text: H. R. Marshall (personal communication, September 17, 2009) Secondary source material Parenthetical: (Marshall, as cited in Cook, 2009) In-Text: Marshall (as cited in Cook, 2009) Attributing an assertion to multiple sources Parenthetical: (Paiste, 2004; Sabian, 2005; Zildjian, 2001) alphabetical (as they appear in reference list) and separated by semicolons In-text: Paiste (2004), Sabian (2005), and Zildjian (2001) Multiple sources with same author and year Parenthetical: (Marshall, 2009a)…(Marshall, 2009b)…(Marshall, 2009c) In-text: Marshall (2009a)…Marshall (2009b)…Marshall (2009c)
Citation Format • Do not use footnotes or endnotes • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names • If referring to the title of a source in your paper, capitalize words that are four letters or longer • After a colon or dash in the title, capitalize the first word • Use italics for the titles of books, periodicals, films, videos, TV shows, and microfilms publications (within text). In general, use italics infrequently • In cases of multiple authors, join the authors’ names with the word “and” if you are referring to them in the text; join the authors’ names with an ampersand (&) if you are referring to them in a parenthetical citation
Scholarly Tone • Per APA (2010), if the first citation in the paragraph is in-text, as it is here, then subsequent in-text citations within this same paragraph do not need to carry a year. However, all parenthetical citations do (APA, 2010). The rule as APA described it is a bit different if the first citation of the paragraph is a parenthetical citation, as is demonstrated on the next slide.
Scholarly Tone • If the first citation in the paragraph is a parenthetical citation, as it is here, then the first in-text citation must carry a year (APA, 2010). APA (2010) also indicated that all parenthetical citations with a paragraph, regardless of the number of previous citations within that paragraph, must carry a year. There are no exceptions to this rule (APA, 2010). In addition, APA has provided new guidelines for how often to cite a source in a paragraph, as is demonstrated on the next slide.
Scholarly Tone • Per APA (2010), referents such as “the authors said” or “the same author indicated” are no longer sufficient ways to cite a source. If the assertion you make does not refer to the author by name, you must provide a parenthetical citation. For example: • Marshall (2009) indicated that proper APA enhances a paper’s scholarly tone. The author also indicated that APA is easy to use if students familiarize themselves with the manual (Marshall, 2009). • If it does: • Marshall (2009) indicated that proper APA enhances a paper’s scholarly tone. Marshall also indicated that APA is easy to use if students familiarize themselves with the manual.
Citation Format • When citing a direct quote, you need to cite the page or paragraph number for where that quote appears in the original source. • (Jones, 2009, p.6) • On occasion a page number is not available. When this is the case provide the paragraph number. • (Jones, 2009, para. 6) • Use block style for quotes of 40 words or more. • Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks.
Citation Format • If citing two different authors with the same surname, use the authors’ first initial: • M. King (2005) and W. King (2007) discovered King is a more common last name than typically thought.
Reference Format • Book • Marshall, H. (2009). Best book ever. New York, NY: Publisher House. • Chapter in an edited book • Timmerman, B. (2009). Best chapter ever. In H. Marshall (Ed.), Best book ever (pp. 14-27). New York, NY: Publisher House.
Reference Format • Journal Article • Marshall, H. (2009). Best article ever composed. Journal of Good Things, 6(2), 199-207. doi:10.123456789 • If there is no DOI: • Marshall, H. (2009). Best article ever composed. Journal of Good Things, 6(2), 199-207. Retrieved from http://www.journalofgoodthings.com • Do not include retrieval dates unless material may change over time.
APA Style Rules • Use the past tense when discussing the literature that you read: • Percy (1935) found • Mathieu (1955) argued • Korrapati (1975) wrote • Lynch (1995) discussed
APA Style Rules • When abbreviating a term, use the full term the first time you use it, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses. • American Psychological Association (APA) • Do not write out states and units of measure. • NY, WA, ft, lb • Do not write out abbreviations that appear as words in the dictionary. • IQ, REM, AIDS, HIV
APA Style Rules • Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations of all capital letters, unless it is a proper name • MA, CD, HTML, APA • P. D. James, J. R. R. Tolkien, E. B. White • Exceptions: Use a period when abbreviating the United States as an adjective (U.S. Marines or U.S. Senator)
APA Style Rules • Use a period if the abbreviation is Latin abbreviation or a reference abbreviation: • etc., e.g., a.m. or Vol. 7, p. 12, 4th ed. • Do not use periods when abbreviated measurements: • cd, ft, lb, mi, min • Exceptions: Use a period when abbreviated inch (in.) to avoid confusion.
APA Style Rules • Commas: use commas to: • Separate elements in a series of three or more • Lions, tigers, and bears • Set off nonessential information • the girl, who was a red head, ate all of my cookies • Use semicolons to separate series containing commas • The colors of the switch sets were red, green, and blue; orange, yellow, and red; and black, white, and orange.
APA Style Rules • In general, words with prefixes such as non, semi, pre, post, anti, multi,andinterare not hyphenated: pretest, posttest, antibiotic, antisocial, nonprofit, semipro, multiphased, subsample • All self- compounds are hyphenated: self-esteem, self-efficacy • Proper nouns ending in s have an ’sadded: Rogers’s
APA Style Rules Zuckerman (2008) advises against the use of block quotes in academic writing. In fact, Zuckerman indicated: Students love block quotations because they fill up a paper. Sometimes they have not even read the entire quote themselves. If they use too many their professors might not give them the credit as writers and researchers that they deserve. (p. 4)
Headings Oranges as Indicators for Progress [Title of Paper] History of the Florida Citrus Industry [L1] Herr Sunkist’s Arrival [L2] Why apples didn’t work. [L3] Dependable cheap labor. [L4] Union busting in sunny Florida. [L5]
Numbers • Express numbers 10 and above as numerals. • Express numbers nine and lower as words • Exceptions • Use figures to represent • Statistical or mathematical functions • Percentages – 6 percent or 6% • Time and dates – 7:00 p.m., May 1, 2010, in 3 weeks • Age – 3-year-olds • population size – 3 participants, n=3 • Scores – she scored 6 out of 9. • Money - $5
Seriation The three preferred food choices of State Fair goers are (a) chocolate chip cookies, (b) bacon on a stick, and (c) deep-fried cheese curds (Timmerman, 2009). • Where order is implied or preferred. Timmerman (2009) concluded State Fair goers: 1. Consume more calories than they burn. 2. Regularly suffer severe sun burns. 3. Prefer bacon on a stick to plain bacon.
Seriation • When no order is implied or preferred: Timmerman (2009) indicated that the preferred food choices of State Fair goers are • chocolate chip cookies, • bacon on a stick, and • deep-fried cheese curds.
Third Person • To avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronoun rather than the third person when describing steps taken in your experiment. • Correct for one author: • I reviewed the literature. • Correct for more than one author: • We reviewed the literature • Incorrect: • This author reviewed the literature. • These authors reviewed the literature.
APA Style Rules • Do not capitalize the names of models or theories (theory of learned behavior). • Do not capitalize the names of disorders or diseases (bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], multiple sclerosis) • Express the word website as one word, lowercase • Double space the reference list • Include the running head on every page. Running head is flush left and page number is flush right. • Limit your use of the pronoun we to refer only to yourself and the coauthor(s) of a paper