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Biology 2.6

Biology 2.6

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Biology 2.6

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  1. Animal Adaptations Biology 2.3 Biology 2.6 Animal Diversity

  2. Gas Exchange Fish, Insects, Mammal

  3. Bio 2.3 Information Sources: • Your own notes • Biozone 2012, pg49-59 • LifeScience, pg140-149 • Patterns of Life, pg211-215 • Life Study, pg 213-216

  4. External Gills - Axolotl  "transformed“ axolotl

  5. *Axolotls • Fail to metamorphosise and adults are gilled and aquatic (neoteny = juv features in adults) • why? Lack thyroid gland, injections of iodine cause metamorphosis (become salamander-like) • Used in research b/c of their ability to regenerate limbs Neoteny in humans:

  6. Insect Gas Exchange

  7. Insect Tracheoles

  8. Insect tracheoles

  9. This photomicrograph show how the walls of the tracheal tubes are stiffened with bands of chitin. Even so, there is a limit to the pressure they can withstand without collapsing. This may be one reason why insects are relatively small. The increased weight of the tissues of an animal the size of a rabbit, for example, would crush tracheal tubes filled only with air.

  10. The abdomen in large, active insects like grasshoppers, is used like a bellows to force air out of tracheae with contraction of skeletal muscles. What happens when these muscles relax? The experiment illustrated (first performed by the insect physiologist Gottfried Fraenkel) shows that there is a one-way flow of air through the grasshopper. The liquid seals at either end of the tubing move to the right as air enters the first four pairs of spiracles in the thorax and is discharged through the last six pairs in the abdomen. Rubber diaphragm Liquid seal Liquid seal (air) (air) How is this different from ventilation in mammals? How does it compare to ventilation in birds? Explain.

  11. 1. This is wrong. This book says that vertebrates use Hb & arthropods use hemocyanin (Cu-based) as their respiratory pigment. 2. Hmm… Zee insect obviouzly ‘as trrouble sustaining aerrobic rezpiracion in zee wadairr. 3. This insect must be an endotherm with a high BMR & high O2 demand. 4. I think maybe the insect stores O2 in this way. The aquatic air-breathing insect Notonecta has tracheal cells (cells lining the respiratory passages) that contain hemoglobin. What advantage would this metallo-protein serve in a diving, air-breathing insect?

  12. Tracheal System in Insects (May serve as storage reserve) Each cell has a nearly direct means of gas exchange via the tracheal system (2-4 spiracles on the thorax, 6-8 on abdomen). What is the advantage of such a system for a small, fast animal? Do insects have respiratory pigments in their hemolymph? Significance? p. 984

  13. Hameocyanin • What? A respiratory pigment based on the copper atom • Chemistry: Oxygenation causes a colour change between the colorless Cu(I) deoxygenated form and the blue Cu(II) oxygenated form. • Which animals? Molluscs, some arthropods • How: Haemocyanin floats free in the blood not in cells like with haemoglobin. Under a paddle crab carapace horseshoe crab blood horseshoe crab

  14. •

  15. Fish

  16. Cons O2 levels low (1-3%) Very low in warm water Very low in salty water Water is dense More energy needed to ventilate it Parasites, pathogens, debris in water Gill rakers Osmotic damage Water diffuses into cells until they burst Water(as a gas exchange medium) • Pros • O2 already dissolved • Water provides buoyancy (keeps gill filaments separated…SA!) • Environment keeps gas exchange surface moist • More energy needed to ventilate it

  17. Parallel Flow

  18. Counter Current Flow

  19. Mammals

  20. Mammalian Respiratory System

  21. Mechanics of Respiration:negative pressure breathing How do the serous membranes that cover the surfaces of the lungs and line the thoracic cavity facilitate breathing?

  22. Pneumothorax(= collapsed lung) • Chest injury or internal leakage causes air to be pulled into lungs from outside of body – lung collapses.

  23. Tracheostomy • a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air; performed when the pharynx is obstructed by edema or cancer or other causes

  24. Smoking & the Lungs… • Started smoking casually at age 18 • Two-pack-a-day addiction, 22 years • Permanent tracheotomy • Cancer 7 times

  25. Rescue Breathing • Works as exhaled air still ~15% O2 • Survive in an air sealed room… • Rebreathing… • Deep diving, hold breath records… • Rescue breathing protocols always changing (based on research) • 1st: flap arms • Recent research: cpr alone

  26. Free-diving Apnea = cessation of breathing • One of various aquatic activities that share the practice of breath-hold underwater diving. • Pool disciplines • Static Apnea is timed breath holding and is usually attempted in a pool (men: 11 min 35 sec, women: 8 min 23 sec) • Dynamic Apnea With Fins. Distance swum underwater in pool, bi-fin or mono fin (men: 265No-Limits Apnea m (nzer Dave Mullins in Sept 2010, women: 225m) • Dynamic Apnea Without Fins. Distance swum underwater, no fins (men: 213m (NZer Dave Mullins) • Depth disciplines • Constant Weight Apnea. No fins, no weights, follow rope only (men: 95m) • No-Limits Apnea. Any method, most use weighted sled (down), inflatable bag (up) (Men: 214m) + other “events”

  27. Clips • Dave 265M Dynamic Apnea with fin World Record 25 Sept 2010. • • Freediving World Record no fins 88m (288ft) • • The Ultimate Dive. The deepest dive in history: -209.6 m •

  28. ANOTHER WORLD RECORD FOR DAVE MULLINS 27.09.10Dave Mullins has once again set a new World Record In Dynamic No fins, extending the previous world record that he held by 5m at Porirua Aquatic Centre today, taking it to 218m. He had jointly held the previous best mark of 213m with German Tom Sietas, although Mullins’ unofficial personal best and New Zealand record in the discipline is 232m. On Saturday, the 2m tall New Zealander broke Frenchman Fred Sessa’s record for the dynamic apnea, with fins discipline, swimming 265m underwater without taking a breath at the Naenae Olympic Pool. Mullins took advantage of shorter length 25m pool in Porirua today, the extra turns meaning he could push off more without fins. “I didn’t swim to my potential, I was a bit tired today after Saturday’s effort but I’m glad to have achieved what we set out to do,” Mullins told NZPA. “I probably could have pushed it a bit more today but if I had tried to kick on and things had gone bad, I could have been disqualified and I would have kicked myself. I’m happy to have just broken the record.”