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Interstate Compact for Juveniles

Interstate Compact for Juveniles

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Interstate Compact for Juveniles

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  1. Interstate Compact for Juveniles Judicial Training Revised April 2014

  2. Interstate Compact for Juveniles • The original Interstate Compact for Juveniles was established in 1955 • Designed to: • Bring order to the interstate movement of juvenile delinquents and status offenders • Ensure that proper supervision services were provided to these juveniles • Problems with original Compact: • Not designed to handle increasing population • Limited ability to enforce compliance • Did not delegate governmental authority • Inconsistent adoption of subsequent amendments Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  3. Interstate Compact for Juveniles, cont. • Revised compact enacted in 2008 • Ensures effective monitoring of juvenile offenders moving across state lines • Provides for the welfare and protection of juveniles and the public • Resolves discrepancies between states • Provides enhanced accountability, enforcement, visibility, and communication • Serves as the only legal process for returning runaways Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  4. Legal Status of Interstate Compacts • Compacts have the characteristics of both statutory law and contractual agreements • A state cannot unilaterally repeal the Compact • All member states must meet their contractual obligations by complying with and enforcing the Compact and its rules • The Commission has rulemaking authority which has force and effect of federal law Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  5. Authority of the Compact Crime Control Act, 4 U.S.C. Section 112 (1965) • Authorizes and encourages states to form cooperative efforts and mutual assistance in the prevention of crime • A state law, court rule, or regulation that contradicts or the rules of the Commission is invalid to the extent of the conflict • All courts and executive agencies are subject to the Interstate Compact for Juveniles Article I,V, & VII Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  6. National Structure

  7. State Council Structure • Provides a mechanism for empowerment of Compact process • Assists in developing Compact policy • Determines qualifications for membership on Council • Appoints designee in Commissioner’s absence Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  8. Transfer of Supervision Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  9. Transfer of Supervision - Overview

  10. Supervision in the ICJ • “Supervision” has 3 components: • Oversight exercised over a juvenile determined by a court or appropriate authority for a period of time • Requires a juvenile to report to or be monitored by appropriate authorities • Regulations and conditions are imposed on the juvenile • Supervision solely for monetary conditions is not applicable under the ICJ Rule 1-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  11. Supervision and the ICJ, cont. • Transferring supervision does not relinquish the sending state’s jurisdiction • Jurisdiction remains with sending state • Violations of the conditions of supervision may be handled by the receiving state unless the sending state seeks return of the juvenile • When the violations constitute new delinquency or status offense under the laws of the receiving state, that state retains the right to prosecute before the juvenile’s return to the sending state Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  12. Supervision and the ICJ, cont. • Both the sending and receiving states have authority to enforce the terms of supervision • May include detention time in the receiving state • Costs incurred from any enforcement sanctions shall be the responsibility of the state seeking to impose such sanctions • ICJ Advisory Opinion 1-2010 • The supervising state may impose graduated sanctions if such standards are also applied to its own delinquent juveniles • The type of incarceration is determined by the receiving state’s laws on the age of majority Rule 5-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  13. Eligibility Criteria for Juveniles • Persons Eligible for Transfer of Supervision: • A person classified as a “juvenile” by the sending state and is under the jurisdiction of a court or appropriate authority • Adjudicated delinquents • Adjudicated status offenders • Juveniles with deferred adjudication • Length of Supervision Restrictions: • Must relocate for 90 consecutive days in receiving state • Have 90 days or more of supervision remaining • Must meet residential criteria Rule 4-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  14. Eligibility Criteria for Juveniles, cont. • Juveniles eligible for transfer must meet the following residential criteria: • Reside with a parent, legal guardian, relative, non-relative or independently • Be enrolled as a full-time student at an accredited secondary school or accredited university, college, or licensed specialized training program • Juveniles moving into residential facilities are not eligible for transfer under ICJ Rule 4-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  15. Eligibility Restrictions • If a child is placed pursuant to the ICJ and is also subject to the ICPC, placement and supervision through ICPC would not be precluded • A receiving state can deny supervision if: • Proposed placement is unsuitable, or • Juvenile is not in substantial compliance • ICJ Rules allow an override of receiving state’s authority to deny placement when there is no custodial parent or guardian in the sending state and a custodial parent or guardian does reside in the receiving state Rules 4-101, 4-104

  16. Sending and Receiving Referrals

  17. Sending and Receiving Referrals, cont. • If a paroled juvenile or juvenile sex offender requires out-of-state placement prior to acceptance of supervision, the sending state shall determine if the circumstances of the juvenile’s immediate placement justify the use of a travel permit, including appropriateness of placement. • The receiving state determines whether to expedite the referral Rule 4-103 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  18. Accepting Referrals • The receiving state shall accept supervision when: • The juvenile has no custodial parent/legal guardian remaining in the sending state; and • The juvenile does have a custodial parent/legal guardian residing in the receiving state • If the placement in the receiving state fails, the sending state retakes the juvenile within 5 business days • If a legal custodian remains in the sending state Rule 4-104 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  19. Home Evaluations – Overview Conduct home evaluation within 30 calendar days of receipt Use Form VIII: Home Evaluation Within 45 calendar days of receipt, the receiving state forwards the completed Form VIII to the sending state Form is signed by appropriate authority The receiving state may deny an unsuitable placement Required to provide an explanation if there is a delay in forwarding the home evaluation Receiving state must ensure a juvenile sex offender complies with local policies or laws during the home evaluation Rules 4-102, 4-104 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  20. Transferring Juvenile Sex Offenders • May not travel into receiving state unless: • Request for transfer is approved • Receiving state issues reporting instructions • Transfer request qualifies for expedited transfer status Items included in referral packet: • Sending state responsible for victim notification • Parole or Probation Documents (listed in Rule 4-102) • Risk Assessment • Safety Plan Specific Assessments (if available) • Legal/Social History • Victim Information • Treatment Plan • Petition/Arrest Reports Rules 4-103, 2-105 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  21. Travel Permits • Mandatory for juveniles traveling out-of-state in excess of 24 consecutive hours AND who have committed, been adjudicated or case circumstances include: • Sex related offense; • Violent offense resulting in personal injury or death; • Offense with a weapon; • State committed juveniles; • Juveniles who are testing placement and subject to ICJ; • Juveniles returning to the sending state; • Juveniles transferring to a subsequent state(s); • Victim notification laws, policies, and practices apply. Rule 8-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  22. Travel Permits, cont. • Maximum length of a permit is 90 calendar days • May be used, but are not required, for juveniles under probation/parole traveling to out-of-state residential treatment facilities • Authorized Travel Permit is provided and received prior to the juvenile's movement • The supervising state forwards the Travel Permit to jurisdiction of visit • The sending state is responsible for meeting victim notification requirements in a timely manner Rule 8-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  23. Travel Permits, cont. • If used to test placement, the receiving state must receive referral packet within 30 calendar days • The issuing state shall instruct juvenile to report any change of status during that period • If Travel Permit exceeds 30 calendar days, sending state provides reporting instruction to juvenile to maintain contact with supervising agency Rule 8-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  24. Travel Permits, cont. • Authorization for out-of-state travel is approved at the discretion of the supervising person • Exception: When sending state notifies receiving state that sending state appropriate authority must approve travel • Permit should be provided and received prior to the juvenile’s movement • The receiving state is responsible for disseminating information according to law, policy, practice, or procedure in the receiving state • Victim notification still applies Rule 8-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  25. New Violations in the Receiving State • The ICJ does not prohibit officials in a receiving state from filing new charges • A juvenile may be charged in a receiving state without violating or interfering in the jurisdiction of the sending state • Officials in a receiving state have two possible courses of action: • Demand the sending state return the juvenile; or • Advise the sending state that they intend to proceed with new charges Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  26. Returning Juveniles

  27. Situations Requiring Return of Juvenile • A non-delinquent juvenile runs away to another state • A juvenile is an escapee, absconder, or accused delinquent and flees to another state • A placement fails for a juvenile under Compact supervision • Return can be voluntary or non-voluntary Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  28. Non-Delinquent Runaways • Within 24 hours of detainment, authorities may release a runaway to a parent or legal guardian without applying Rule 6-102 • Except where instances of abuse/neglect is suspected • After 24 hours, holding authorities contact the holding state • Runaways are held in secure facilities ifdetained longer than 24 hours or they are endangering themselves or others • OJJDP Exclusion • Juveniles held pursuant to the ICJ are excluded from the deinstitutionalization of status offenders requirements. See, Notice of Clarification of OJJDP Policy on Secure Detention of Runaways Rule 6-101 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  29. Voluntary Return of Runaways • Judge conducts a hearing informing juvenile of rights • May use ICJ Juvenile Rights Form • The court may appoint counsel or guardian ad litem • The juvenile and the judge sign the ICJ Form III • Holding state forwards the completed ICJ Form III to the home/demanding state within 5 business days • For voluntary return of runaways who allege abuse/neglect: • The Form III must indicate who will be assuming responsibility for the juvenile Rules 6-101, 6-102

  30. Non-Voluntary Returns - Overview • The non-voluntary return process is divided into two distinct processes: • Returning non-delinquent runaways; and • Returning juveniles who are escapees, absconders, or accused delinquents • Home/demanding state prepares a requisition within 60 calendar days of notification that: • The juvenile refuses to return; or • Request the juvenile be taken into custody Rule 6 -103, 6-103A Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  31. Initial Process For All Non-Voluntary Returns • If the juvenile refuses to return voluntarily, the appropriate authority in the home/demanding state shall prepare a written requisition within 60 calendar days of notification. • The appropriate authority may also request that a court take into custody a juvenile that is allegedly located in their jurisdiction. Rule 6-103 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  32. Non-Delinquent Returns • The parent, legal guardian, or custodial agency must petition the court in the home/demanding state for a requisition. Items included in petition: • Juvenile’s name and date of birth • Name of the petitioner • Basis of entitlement to the juvenile’s custody • Circumstances of his/her running away • His/her location if known at the time application is made • Other facts that show the juvenile is endangering his/her welfare or others and is not an emancipated minor • Verified by affidavit and accompanied by a certified copy of documents showing entitlement to juvenile. Rule 6-103 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  33. Non-Delinquent Returns, cont. • The home/demanding state's appropriate authority begins the requisition process when: • Notified by the holding state’s ICJ Office that a non-delinquent juvenile refuses to return voluntarily; • The parent or legal guardian is unable or refuses to initiate the requisition; or • There are allegations of abuse or neglect and appropriate authorities in the home/demanding state determine that the juvenile will not be returning to a parent or legal guardian Rules 6-101, 6-103 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  34. Non-Delinquent Returns, cont. • The judge in the home/demanding state determines if: • If the judge determines the juvenile should return, the judge signs the Form I. Rule 6-103 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  35. Escapee, Absconder, or Accused Delinquent Return Process • The appropriate authority presents Form II to the court where the juvenile is allegedly located. Items included in requisition: • Judgment • Order of adjudication • Order of commitment • Petition alleging delinquency • Other applicable affidavits • Verified by affidavit and accompanied by a certified copy of documents showing entitlement to juvenile. Rule 6-103A Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  36. Escapee, Absconder, or Accused Delinquent Return Process (cont.) • The home/demanding state’s ICJ Office ensures the packets are in order. • ICJ Office will use JIDS to submit requisition packets • Holding state may request and shall be entitled to originals or certified copies of any legal documents • If not already detained, the court shall order the juvenile be held pending a hearing to determine if the requisition is in order. Rule 6-103A Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  37. Maximum Detention Time • 90 calendar days – pending the non-voluntary return of the juvenile to the home/demanding state. • The home/demanding state maintains contact with the authorities preparing the requisition to ensure accuracy and minimize detention time Rule 6-103A Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  38. Hearings for Non-Voluntary Returns • Within 30 days of receipt of a requisition - hearing shall occur in the state where the juvenile is located. • The juvenile may elect to have counsel or guardian ad litem Rule 6-103, 6-103A Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  39. Non-Voluntary Returns – Last Steps Rule 6-103, 6-103A Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  40. Retaking and Failed Placements • Officers are authorized to enter any member state to retake a juvenile • Unless the juvenile is suspected of having committed an offense/ act of juvenile delinquency • The sending state may not retake the juvenile without prior consent from authorities in the receiving state • Officers need only establish their authority and the identity of the juvenile • The receiving state shall honor any warrant • The sending state returns the juvenile within 5 business days upon receiving notice of a failed placement Rule 5-103 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  41. Waiver of Extradition: Form IA/VI • If Form IA/VI is signed, the sending state may retake without further court procedures • Challenges to similar waiver provisions in other compacts have not been successful Rule 5-103 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  42. Absconder Under ICJ Supervision • Upon finding/apprehending the juvenile the sending state: • Decides if the juvenile returns to the sending state or requests that supervision resume in the receiving state • The receiving state may close the case: • Upon notification that sending state issued a warrant, or • The juvenile has been on absconder status for 10 business days Rule 5-102 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  43. Transporting Juveniles • The home/demanding state is responsible for the costs of transportation and for making transportation arrangements • If the juvenile is a safety risk, they are to be accompanied on their return • Requisitioned juveniles are accompanied unless both ICJ Offices determine otherwise Rule 6-103, 6-103A, 7-101, 7-102 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  44. Closing an ICJ Case Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  45. Special Judicial Interests Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  46. UCERA Considerations • The Uniform Criminal Extradition and Rendition Act (UCERA) can affect the procedures for returning a fugitive • Several courts have recognized that an interstate compact is an appropriate alternative procedure • States may return individuals without complying with the UCERA Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  47. Warrants • All warrants must be entered into the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) • Holding state honors all warrants • The holding state notifies the home/demanding state by the next business day that the juvenile is in custody • The home/demanding state has 2 business days to decide if they will return the juvenile • “No bond/bail warrants” • A juvenile remains in custodial detention regardless of individual state statute • Juvenile to be held in secure detention • Juvenile has opportunity for a hearing Rule 7-104 Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  48. Judicial Sentencing Practices • The Revised ICJ should be viewed as a supervision transfer mechanism • It does not limit the sentencing authority of a judge • The Revised ICJ applies to all dispositional outcomes • Deferred adjudication, treatment options, custodial placements, etc. do not restrict the application of the Compact • Deferred prosecutions do not exempt a state from complying with the Revised ICJ Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  49. Hearings • U.S. Supreme Court cases may affect the process for return of juveniles • See, e.g., Morrissey v. Brewer, 408 U.S. 471 (1972); Gagnon v. Scarpelli, 411 U.S. 778 (1973); Carchman v. Nash, 473 U.S. 716 (1985) • Under the Revised ICJ Rules, a state is not obligated to provide counsel in circumstances of revocation or retaking Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities

  50. Hearings, cont. • If the sending state will not revoke the juvenile’s supervision, the juvenile is not entitled to a probable cause (PC) hearing • A juvenile must be afforded a PC hearing where: • Retaking is for a purpose other than the commission of a new felony offense; and • Revocation of conditional release by the sending state is likely • A variety of persons can fulfill the requirement of a neutral and detached authority • Officials qualified to handle revocation proceedings may preside over PC hearings in the receiving state Serving Juveniles While Protecting Communities