Unit 9 Notes Kingdom Animalia
Characteristics of Animals • All multicellular • All are eukaryotes (cells with nucleus & organelles) • Ingestive heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it)
Support Systems • Have some type of skeletal support • Endoskeleton- inside and made of cartilage &/or bone or • Exoskeletons- found in arthropods • Cover the outside of the body • Limit size • Must be molted making, animal vulnerable to predators
Movement • Animals such as sponges may be sessile (attached & non-moving) • Animals that can move are motile • Have muscular tissue to provide energy for movement
SESSILE Chiton Sponge MOTILE Cheetah
Reproduction in Animals • All animals are capable of sexual reproduction • Some animals like sponges and earthworms are hermaphrodites producing both eggs and sperm
Invertebrate vs. Vertebrates • Invertebrates are animals that have no backbone. • Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone made of bones called vertebrae.
Surfaces • Dorsal – back or upper surface • Ventral – belly or lower surface • Anterior – head or front end • Posterior – tail or hind end, opposite the head
Body Symmetry • Symmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axis • Asymmetry occurs when the body can’t be divided into similar sections (sponges)
Body Symmetry • Radial symmetry occurs when body parts are arranged around a central point like spokes on a wheel (starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars)
Body Symmetry • Bilateral symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane • Organisms will have right and left sides that are mirror images of each other • mammals, insects, lobsters,
Fertilization • External – sperm fertilizes eggs outside the female’s body. • Internal – eggs are fertilized inside the female’s body.
Phylum Porifera (Sponges) • Simple animals • Multicellular • Are sessile- do not move. • Live in ocean or freshwater • No tissues or organs • Made of a collection of cells. • Feed on plankton in the water. • Have asymmetry
Specialized Cells • Pore cells- allow water to enter. • Pores lead to canals lined with flagella. • This helps water flow through. • Cells filter out food and oxygen. • Spicules- needlelike spines that give shape, support, and protection.
Sponge Reproduction • Asexually- budding • Sexually- Sperm is released into water and enters sponge to fertilize eggs. • Larva- immature form of an organism. • Only sponge larva are mobile.
“Cnidarians” Phylum Cnidaria
Characteristics • Live only in water • Jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, hydras, Portuguese man of war • Most feed on plankton, fish, or clams. • Sessile or mobile • All have tentacles • Can have bilateral, radial, or asymmetry
Tentacles • Finger-like extensions that reach into the water. • Have stinging cells. • Job is to capture prey/protection • Some release poison
Body Makeup • Made of tissue • One central opening for food & wastes. • Have simple muscles that allow movement.
Body Characteristics • Tube shaped body • Some have simple bodies; others are developed. • Bilateral symmetry • Take in oxygen, dissolved in water through their skin. • Must live in moist environment.
Segmented Worms • Phylum Annelida • Bodies divided into segments. • Called annelids • Example- earthworm, leech • Have specific body systems • Asexual or sexual reproduction • Have male and female parts
Flatworms/Roundworms • Phylum Platyhelminthes = flatworms • Phylum Nematoda = roundworms • Very simple bodies • Absorb nutrients through skin • Some are parasites • Examples- flukes, hookworms, pinworms, Planarians
Basic Characteristics • Soft bodies • Most have outer shell • Live on land or in water • All have muscular foot attached to head • All have mantle that protects internal organs.
Bivalves • Hard shell made of 2 halves • Clams, mussels, scallops, oysters • Filter feeders • Take in oxygen with gills
Gastropods • Snails, slugs • Most have spiral shaped shell • Live in water or on land • Radula- mouth part that shreds food. • Have gills or lungs
Cephalopods • Live in saltwater • Examples---octopuses/squids • Have a brain and well developed body systems • Have tentacles surrounding mouth • Have a head and eyes