1 / 64

FUTURE NEUTRINO FACILITIES alain.blondel@cern.ch

FUTURE NEUTRINO FACILITIES alain.blondel@cern.ch . Why future neutrino facilities ? Recently an american colleague having measured  13 was talking to hisfunding agency about a future neutrino project and was told :

Télécharger la présentation

FUTURE NEUTRINO FACILITIES alain.blondel@cern.ch

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. FUTURE NEUTRINO FACILITIES alain.blondel@cern.ch

  2. Why future neutrino facilities ? Recently an americancolleaguehavingmeasured13wastalking to hisfundingagency about a future neutrino project and wastold: what more do youwant ? dont you know all these angles now?  IMPORTANT TO STATE THE BIG PICTURE:

  3. Neutrinos : the New Physics there is… and a lot of it! wrong Mass hierarchies are all unknownexcept m1 < m2 Preferred scenario has both Dirac and Majoranaterms … … manyphysicspossibilities and experimentalchallenges

  4. Any of the following would be a fundamental breakthrough or discovery: Q.1 Determination of the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. Q.2 Determination of the mass hierarchy of the active neutrinos. Q.3 CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Q.4 Violation of unitarity of the neutrino mixing matrix. Q.5 Observation of fermion number violation by neutrinoless double beta decay. Q.6 Discovery of effects implying unambiguously the existence of sterile neutrino(s)

  5. Where do we stand?

  6. Present situation of neutrino mixing: • We know that there are three families of active, light neutrinos (LEP-1989) • 2. Solar neutrino oscillations are established • (Homestake+Gallium+Kamland+SK+SNO-1968-2002) • Atmospheric neutrino (nm -> ...) oscillations are established • (IMB+Kam+Macro+Sudan+SK) (1986-1998) • At the atmospheric frequency, electron neutrino oscillations are smaller (CHOOZ) • but not that small (T2K, MINOS, DoubleChooz, Daya Bay, Reno 2011-2012) • This allows a consistent picture with 3-family oscillations • preferred: • q12~300Dm122~8 10-5eV2 , q23~450, Dm232~ 2.5 10-3eV2, q13 = 90 • with several unknown parameters • => an exciting experimental program for at least 25 years *) • including leptonic CP & T violations 5. There is indication of possible higher frequency oscillations (LSND, miniBooNE, reactor, source anomaly) (1993-2011) This is not consistent with three families of active neutrinos oscillating, and is not supported (nor is it completely contradicted) by other experiments. This couldbe a series of unconvincingresultswithpoorexperimentalmethods… or a sign of the existence of light sterile neutrino(s)? *)to set the scale: CP violation in quarks was discovered in 1964 and there is still an important program (K0pi0, B-factories, Neutron EDM, BTeV, LHCb..) to go on for 10 years…(superB etc…) i.e. a total of ~60 yrs. and we have not discovered leptonic CP yet!

  7. THE NEUTRINO MIXING MATRIX or Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata (PMNS) matrix From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: In particle physics, the Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix), Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix (MNS matrix), lepton mixing matrix, or neutrino mixing matrix, is a unitary matrix[note 1] which contains information on the mismatch of quantum states of leptons when they propagate freely and when they take part in the weak interactions. It is important in the understanding of neutrino oscillations. This matrix was introduced in 1962 by Ziro Maki, Masami Nakagawa and Shoichi Sakata,[1] to explain the neutrino oscillations predicted by Bruno Pontecorvo.[2][3]

  8. Active neutrino mixingparameters: « naturalhierarchy » n3 Dm223= 2 10-3eV2 n2 n1 Dm212= 8 10-5 eV2 OR? « invertedhierarchy » n2 n1 Dm212= 8 10-5 eV2 Dm223= 2 10-3eV2 n3 q23(atmospheric) = 450 , q12(solar) = 320 , q13=90 Crucial roleplayed by 13! Next: phase  , sign of Dm213 UPMNS 2

  9. neutrino mixing m2n n3 n2 n1 neis a (quantum) mix of n1(majority, 65%) and n2 (minority 30%) with a small admixture of n3 ( < 13%) (CHOOZ)

  10. 13 Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  11. Situation today: acceleratorbeam appearance : e reactoredisappearance Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  12. Reactors Double Chooz sin2 2θ13=0.1090.03(stat)  0.025(sys) Daya Bay sin2 2θ13=0.089 0.010(stat)  0.005(sys) RENO sin2 2θ13 = 0.1130.013(stat) 0.019 (sys) sin2 2θ13  0.095 0.011 I believethatultimateprecisionwillbe 0.005 MINOS 2012 T2K 2012 MINOS very slight preference for m232<0… Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  13. remarks Our colleagues of Dchoozhadit all right -- detector concept and design -- importance of two detectors for cancellation of systematics (L. Mikaelyan & V. Sinev) Disappearance and appearance are not the samething! -- wedon’t know intowhat doedisappear! (in the 3x3 unitarymixingit’s a nearlyequal mix of  and ) -- even in 3x3 mixing the effects are different appearance directlymeasures e neutrino transition, CP violation by interference of atmospheric and solar oscillation mass hierarchythroughmattereffectsat long distances (level shift) disappearance at short distance (1.5km) pure 13-driven disappearance mass hierarchy via solar/atmosphericinterferencearound 50km atvery large distances (200km, KAMLAND) 12-driven disappearance Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  14. This is the big neutrino news. We now know all three mixing angles! and the interplay of appearance and disappearance experiments will give us access to sign(m232) and to CP violation Meanwhile, IN ANOTHER WORLD…

  15. While looking for the SM Higgs boson, LHC discovered a new boson! 2 expts 5 each

  16. J. Incandela CMS seminar 4/7/2012

  17. The SM is « complete »… but the neutrino questions remain…

  18. Sterile neutrinos Sterile neutrinos can have masses extending from (essentially 0) all the way to GUT-inspired 1010 GeV! We have many hints for ‘something that could be indications for sterile neutrinos ‘ in the ~ few eV2 range In general these hints are not performed with the desired methodological quality -- no near detector -- no direct flux measurement -- no long target hadroproduction with full acceptance -- etc.. etc… -- none is 5 sigma -- need decisive experiments (> 5 significance) -- look wide! other ranges than LSND ‘effect’ Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  19. 1989 The Number of light neutrinos ALEPH+DELPHI+L3+OPAL in 2001 N = 2.984 0.008 Error dominated by systematics on luminosity.

  20. Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  21. Thierry Lasserre Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  22. Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012 Shaewitz Neutrino 2012

  23. Sterile neutrino search a global view: Detected by mixing between sterile and active neutrino ideal experiments: source detector active,  knownprocess knownprocess 1. disappearance, not necessarily oscillatory best is NC disappearance sterile 0. if sterile cannot be produced (too heavy) apparent deficit in decay rate active,  2.   appearance (at higher order) Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  24. Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  25. whymagnetizediron, and not Larg, TASD etc…?

  26. Future experiments -- determination of mass hierarchy -- determination of CP violation or CP phase -- verification of 3x3 framework and search for sterile neutrinos

  27. Oscillation maximum 1.27 Dm2 L / E =p/2 Atmospheric Dm 2= 2.5 10-3 eV 2 L = 500 km @ 1 GeV Solar Dm2 = 7 10-5 eV2 L = 18000km @ 1 GeV Oscillations of 250 MeV neutrinos; Consequences of 3-family oscillations: I There will be nm↔ ne and nt ↔ ne oscillation at L atm P (nm↔ ne)max =~ ½ sin 22 q13+… (small) II There will be CP or T violation CP: P (nm↔ ne) ≠ P (nm↔ ne) T : P (nm↔ ne) ≠ P (ne ↔nm) III we do not know if the neutrino n1 which contains more neis the lightest one (natural?) or not. P (nm↔ ne)

  28. P(nenm) = ¦A¦2+¦S¦2 + 2 A S sin d P(nenm) = ¦A¦2+¦S¦2 - 2 A S sin d P(nenm) - P(nenm) sind sin (Dm212 L/4E) sin q12 sinq13 = ACP a sin2 2q13 + solar term… P(nenm) + P(nenm) … need large values of sin q12, Dm212 (LMA) but *not* large sin2q13 … need APPEARANCE … P(nene) is time reversal symmetric (reactors or sun are out) … can be large (30%) for suppressed channel (one small angle vs two large) at wavelength at which ‘solar’ = ‘atmospheric’ and for ne,t … asymmetry is opposite for neandnet

  29. ! large 13 asymmetry is a few % and requires excellent flux normalization (neutrino fact., beta beam or excellent near/far detector T asymmetry for sin  = 1 asymmetry neutrino factory JHFII-HK asymmetrystatisticalerror NOTE: This isat first maximum! Sensitivityatlow values of q13isbetter for short baselines, sensitivityat large values of q13 maybebetter for longer baselines (2d max or 3d max.) 10 30 0.10 0.30 90

  30. Latest Result of nm→nefrom T2K All the plots here are preliminary. 2.5x1020 POT Improvement of both reactor and accelerator experiments will provide first handle on the CP violating complex phase dCP. Stat err only! Expectation with ~50 times more data (750kWx 5x107s) Expected beam power

  31. NOvA Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  32. in some regions will be able to determine mass hierarchy at 3 in 6 years Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  33. mass hierarchy with reactor? need resolution < separation between peaks <~ 2% at 3 MeV Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  34. mass hierarchy with atmospherics? Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  35. LBNO LArg LBNO- Lsc Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012 red =~ approved

  36. Next n program at J-PARC Kamioka L=295km OA=2.5deg Okinoshima L=658km OA=0.78deg J-PARC 1.7MW 100kt Liq. Ar TPC P32 proposal (Lar TPC R&D) Recommended by J-PARC PAC (Jan 2010), arXiv:0804.2111 Hope to start construction ~2018

  37. Tricky business… Lots of maybe’s and no definite assurance that with approved or non accelerator expts we will determine (i.e. 5) sign(m232) Should we propose a new definitive experiment? Some risk, so needs to be able to do CPV too… In the following I restrict to a European view given the upcoming upgrade of the European Strategy for particle physics Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  38. Getting our feet on (under) the ground: LAGUNA –LBNO new FP7 design study 2011-2014 CERN EOI 2 main options Short distance: 130km Memphys at Frejus SPL+beta beam CP and T violation CN2PY Long distance: 2300km Pyhasalmi Fine grain detector e.g. 20kton fid. Larg + Magnetized detector Long distance allows rapid sensitivity to sign(m213) 1st step easier: SPS C2PY  consortium 1st priority Nextsteps: HP 50 GeV PS … …or neutrino factory Medium term plans include long term plans!

  39. CERN-SPSC-2012-021 (SPSC-EOI-007) aim at start date (2023) Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  40. LBNO near detector 500m from target (> 100m underground) High pressure Ar gas TPC surrounded by TASD and MIND  100k events/year avoid pile-up and allows charge determination of electrons Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  41. FAR DETECTOR Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  42. 1. rate dramatically affected by mass hierarchy.  5sigma in 2 years First goal of experiment both rate and spectrum of appearance sensitive to CPV  longer term plans -- upgrade to stronger proton source -- upgrade to neutrino factory m232>0 m232<0 Alain Blondel NUFACT12 23-07- 2012

  43. CERN-SPL-based Neutrino SUPERBEAM 300 MeV n m Neutrinos small contamination from ne (no K at 2 GeV!) target! Fréjus underground lab. A large underground water Cerenkov (400 kton) UNO/HyperK or/and a large L.Arg detector. also : proton decay search, supernovae events solar and atmospheric neutrinos. Performance similar to J-PARC II There is a window of opportunity for digging the cavern stating in 2008 (safety tunnel in Frejus)

  44. CERN: b-beam baseline scenario Nuclear Physics neutrinos of Emax=~600MeV EU pride.. SPL target! Decay ring B = 5 T Lss = 2500 m SPS Decay Ring ISOL target & Ion source ECR Cyclotrons, linac or FFAG Stacking! Rapid cycling synchrotron PS Same detectors as Superbeam !

  45. Combination of beta beam with low energy super beam Unique to CERN: need few 100 GeV accelerator (PS + SPS will do!) experience in radioactive beams at ISOLDE many unknowns: what is the duty factor that can be achieved? (needs < 10-3 ) combines CP and T violation tests e m (+) (T) m e (p+) (CP) e m (-) (T) m e (p-) Can this work???? theoretical studies now on beta beam + SPL target and horn R&D  design study together with EURISOL

  46. -- Neutrino Factory -- CERN layout -- cooling! 1016p/s target! acceleration! 1.2 1014 m/s =1.2 1021 m/yr _ 0.9 1021 m/yr m+ e+ne nm 3 1020 ne/yr 3 1020 nm/yr oscillates ne nm interacts givingm- WRONG SIGN MUON interacts giving m+

More Related