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Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages

Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages

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Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages

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  1. Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages Chapter 10 (1 of 4)

  2. What were the Middle Ages? Middle Ages = Term for western Europe during the Postclassical Era (A.P. World History’s 3rd time period) Middle Ages began with the fall of Rome (476) and ended in the 1400s The Middle Ages are also called the Dark Ages If you see the term “the West” = western Europe (later includes America)

  3. The Early Middle Ages (450-900) First part of Middle Ages = western Europe had many problems and considered backwards Italy was struggling after the fall of Rome and Spain was ruled by Muslims Eventually, western Europe would recover and advance rapidly, but that wasn’t until the later part of the Middle Ages (after 900 C.E.)

  4. Early Middle Ages = Western Europe Weak Western Europe often invaded, making it hard to advance Vikings = Scandinavian raiders, invaded Europe between 700s and 1000s

  5. Literacy Low In Early Middle Ages For the most part, only the clergy and people in monasteries were literate, and they helped to preserve classic learning

  6. Manor System

  7. Manor System Manorialism = economic and political system b/t landlords and their peasants Manor System (Feudalism) increased due to a lack of trade during early part of the Middle Ages

  8. A Serf’s Life Serfs = most peasants, who were farmers, lived on self-sufficient estates called manors, got protection from lord (noble) in return for part of their good Serf life was difficult: agricultural technology low and production low (had to spend many days repairing caste or working on lord’s land) Though limited, some new technology did help Not slaves (couldn’t be bought and sold) owned land as long as obligations met Three-Field System = crop rotation leaving less land unused Moldboard Plow = new plow that could get through heavy soil

  9. The Church After the fall of Rome, the church was the only strong form of organization (governments weak) Pope sponsored missions (converted England, Germany, parts of eastern Europe) to Christianity

  10. Clovis German warrior who converted to Christianity in 496 and got control over the Franks (German tribe living where France is today)

  11. The Role of Monasteries Monasteries showed the spiritual focus of medieval society and promoted education and literacy Many monasteries built during the Middle Ages, and they played a big role in medieval society

  12. Charles “The Hammer” Martel Ruler of the Franks (he was from the Carolingian family) Defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours (732) stopping Muslim advance into western Europe

  13. Later Carolingian ruler who established empire in France and Germany around 800, called Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne Looked like glory of Rome would be revived, but never occurred

  14. After Charlemagne’s death in 814, empire split into 3 sections (France, Germany, Low Countries) so each of his sons could have one Charlemagne Western Europe became series of regional monarchies with weak kings (aristocracy powerful) Most powerful of these regional monarchies in Germany and northern Italy

  15. Europe Divided Culturally western Europe was united through Catholicism, but politically it was very divided No single language in western Europe (Latin was language of church, but spoken language was French, English, etc)

  16. Things Turn Around Year 900 Agricultural Innovations such as the moldboard plow, three-field system, horse collar, and stirrups Viking raids began stopping in the 900s This led to population growth, which led to economic innovation and the growth of cities and towns

  17. Economic Growth More people meant more markets, trade grew Harsh serfdom still existed, but serfs gaining more freedom A commercial, market-based economy began to exist in western Europe Feudal system weakened as towns grew (demand for peasant labor increased and landlords needed to entice them by giving them more freedom (now charged rent)

  18. Growth of Towns and Cities Literacy spread in urban centers, as did use of vernacular (spoken) languages, like French and English Towns and cities grew rapidly especially in Italy Asia still had more in cities than western Europe, but they were growing in western Europe Merchant activity and craft production grew

  19. Universities Grow Church based schools formed in 800s By 1000s, first universities created – they trained middle class in the cities in theology, medicine, and law By 1100s, modern universities emerge throughout western Europe (such as Oxfordand Cambridge in England)

  20. Getting Back to the Feudal System • Began by 500s • Originally very local (lords had 5-10 vassals) but could span over large areas or kingdoms (such as Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire) • Feudalism hurt development of strong monarchies (feudal lords had power) but it reduced local warfare • Kings used feudalism to build power (France started as feudal lords near Paris who gradually expanded and built monarchy)

  21. William the Conqueror Set up a central monarchy with a bureaucracy to help rule Led the Norman (from Normandy, France) invasion of England in 1066, extending feudal system to England

  22. Feudal Monarchies To extend power, feudal monarchies hired professional armies, and hired businessmen to run bureaucracies Growth of feudal monarchies similar to China – both extensive bureaucracies

  23. Limited Government Strong monarchies didn’t develop across Europe, as regional states and feudal lords still had much power Ex: Magna Carta and King John (1215) – forced to give up power (couldn’t add new taxes w/out parliament’s ok Parliament = legislative body representing 3 privileged estates (church, nobles, urban leaders) not commoners

  24. Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) War fought between France and England Led to decline of feudal system (monarchs) saw that feudal militaries (which did most of fighting) weren’t too effective, and a paid was army better Since noble’s military power no longer needed, feudal system began fading away

  25. Western Europeans Crave Expansion

  26. The Crusades Lasting impact of Crusades was West being exposed to Middle Eastern culture The Crusades were the biggest expansionist movement Urban II – Pope who ordered 1st Crusade

  27. Religious Reform Reform movements began to remove this secularism from the church and rid church of interference of feudal lords Church officials often caught up in politics, hurting church Investiture – practice of government appointing bishops, Gregory VII fought Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV on this issue and won Gregory VII – Pope (1073-1085) reformed church Began Western idea of separation of church and state

  28. Height of Medieval Civilization Merchant activity was growing and the feudal system was slowly dying out Medieval Western civilization reached its peak in the 1100s and the 1200s