NARRATION AND THE NARRATOR. POIN OF VIEW THE COLLECTORby John Fowles
John Fowles (1926-2005) • British novelist and essayist. • Professor of French and English. • The Collector (1963) – his first published novel and an international bestseller. • Several of his novels were turned into films.
Short story: What three types do we know? Novel : What types of the novel are there? Main genres of today’s fiction
Novels resist strict classification One and the same novel can belong to several of the types. How can The Collector be classified? Why? What genre(s) does the movie poster advertise?
First-person narration Third-person narration Stream of consciousness* (not to be confused with first-person narration) Types of Narration
*Stream of consciousness is a narrative mode that imitates the character's process of thinking. It is characteristic for the stream of consciousness to involve loosely connected sentences, sometimes lacking proper syntax and punctuation. There is no clear logic; links between phrases are not logical but associative. It’s a form of interior monologue.
“frseeeeeeeefronnnng train somewhere whistling the strength those engines have in them like big giants and the water rolling all over and out of them all sides like the end of Loves old sweeeetsonnnng the poor men that have to be out all the night from their wives and families in those roasting engines stifling it was today Im glad I burned the half of those old Freemans and Photo Bits leaving things like that lying about hes getting very careless and threw the rest of them up in the WC 111 get him to cut them tomorrow for me instead of having them there for the next year to get a few pence for them have him asking wheres last Januarys paper and all those old overcoats I bundled out of the hall making the place hotter than it is that rain was lovely and refreshing just after my beauty sleep” James Joyce, Ulysses. Stream of consciousness (example)
Characters being talked about by the omniscient author (omniscient/limited) Characters talking about each other Characters talking for themselves What means of characterization are used in The Collector? What do they do for the reader? Basic means of characterization
POINT OF VIEW NARRATOR
Establishes the perspective from which the characters are seen and the events are presented. Determines the plot (succession of events), the details, the style, the language, and more. How does the point of view in The Collector affect other elements of the novel? Point of View
Created by the author. A narrator always differs from the actual author, even when certain biographical details, including the name, coincide. Narrator
First-person (“I” or “We”) narrator can be: • A participant of the story and its main character; • A minor character; • An observer who does not take part in the story. What examples of different first-person narrators can you remember? What possibilities does a first-person narrator give to the author? What are the limitations? First-Person Narrator
Other first-person narrators can be limited by their lack of knowledge or experience, by being childish, or insane, or evil, etc. Perceptive readers have an advantage in understanding and can interpret the events for themselves and see dramatic irony*. Unreliable Narrator
Dramatic irony occurs when a character states something that they believe to be true but that the reader knows is not true. The key to dramatic irony is the reader's foreknowledge of coming events. Second readings of stories often increase dramatic irony because of knowledge that was not present in the first reading. http://serc.sogang.ac.kr/erc/Literature/Irony.htm * Dramatic irony
Persona (“mask”) – a first-person narrator radically different from the actual author in his/her opinions and characteristics. Personasare often unreliable, creating an ironic distance between their perspective and that of the readers. Persona
What are your reader’s expectations, based on Part 1 of The Collector? Explain your opinion using the categories of narration, narrator, point of view. Food for Thought