Wireless Networks Tamus, Zoltán Ádám firstname.lastname@example.org http://adaminf.atw.hu
Basics of Communication • Transmitter(coding)->Channel->(decoding) Receiver
The Radio-Channel • Wireless technologies use electromagnetic waves as channel • Radiowaves (freq. 30 kHz-30 GHz) • Light (Infra Red) (wavelength ~900 nm)
Personal Area Networks • Interconnecting devices without wire • Headsets • Notebooks • PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) • Mobile phones • GPS • Peripherals (Keyboard, Mouse, Printer, Game controller etc.)
Personal Area Networks • Bluetooth • 1998, Special Interest Group (Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba) • Uses radiofrequency: in the 2.4 GHz band, frequency hopping spread spectrum system • Max. 1 Mb/sec bandwidth • Operating range ~10 m, but in high power applications can be extended to 100 m
Personal Area Network • Bluetooth devices
Personal Area Network • IrDA (Infrared Data Association) 1993 • Use Infrared light • Operating range max. 1 m • Bandwidth: 4 Mb/sec.
Local Area Networks • Home • Offices • Public WLAN, Wi-Fi Hot Spots • Hotels • Airports • Net Cafes http://www.wi-fihotspotlist.com/http://www.hotspotter.hu/en/ • Ad Hoc peer to peer
Local Area Network • Typical WLAN application in home or small office
Local Area Network • Network Access in Buildings • Desktop PCs • Notebooks • PDAs
Local Area Networks • IEEE 802.11 standard • 802.11a • 1999 • 5 GHz band • Max. 54 Mb/sec • 802.11b • 2.5 GHz • Max. 11 Mb/sec • 802.11g • 2.5 GHz • Max. 54 Mb/sec
Security • Eavesdropping & Espionage • Wireless technologies use radio waves. Eavesdroppers can easily pick up unencrypted messages by listening the ether • Rouge Access Points • An employee of an organization might hook up an access point without the permission or even knowledge of IT.
Security • Accidental Associations • A wireless network is setup using the same SSID as your network and within range of your wireless device. Connecting to another wireless LAN can divulge passwords or sensitive document to anyone on the neighbouring network • Denial of Service • Flowing packages to the network take the resources • RF interference with an external transmitter
Security • Securing Wireless Networks • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) • Problems: Easily vulnerable because of the permanent keys and the short initialization vector • WPA (Wi-Fi Protocol Access) • The clients use periodically changed different keys • VPN (Virtual Private Network)
Security • Authentication • SSID (Service Set Identifier) • Weakness in IEEE 802.11: the SSID is sent without encrypting! • MAC address filtering • MAC (Media Access Control) • WEP not encodes the MAC field of the frame!
Setting up a wireless router • Connection to the broadband router • Connecting a PC
Configuration • Access to Web-based utility software by Router’s IP address • User Name: <blank> • Password: admin
Setting up Internet Connection • DHCP • Static IP • PPPoE • PPTP
Setting up Wireless Network • Mode: B/G • SSID Broadcasting ? • Channel
Security Settings • WEP • Level of WEP encryption: 64-bit or 128-bit
Security Settings • WPA • WPA2 • WPA2 Mixed • Set the Passphrase and Renewal period
Access control • MAC address filtering
Security Precautions • Change the default SSID. • Disable SSID Broadcast. • Change the default password for the Administrator account. • Enable MAC Address Filtering. • Change the SSID periodically. • Use the highest encryption algorithm possible. Use WPA if it is available. Please note that this may reduce your network performance. • Change the WEP encryption keys periodically.