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ACG2021 Financial Accounting

ACG2021 Financial Accounting

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ACG2021 Financial Accounting

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  1. ACG2021Financial Accounting Processing Accounting Information

  2. The Accounting Information System • Income Statement • Balance Sheet • Cash Flow Inputs Process Outputs Business Transaction • Accounts • Journal • General Ledger • Trial Balance

  3. Learning Objective 1 Analyze business transactions.

  4. Accounting for Business Transactions Transaction - any event that both affects the financial position of the business entity and can be reliably recorded • Reliably Recorded (2 accounting principles, what are they?)

  5. Transactions are Recorded inThe Account • Basic summary device • Paper based • Computer based • ???? based • Accounts - grouped into three broad categories • Assets • Liabilities • Stockholders’ Equity • Used to Accumulate $’s of every business transaction • How much cash did we receive/spend? • How much revenue did we earn? • How much was spent on rent for the year?

  6. Chart of Accounts • The chart of accounts lists all accounts and their account numbers. • Accounts can be grouped under the financial statement headings: • Balance Sheet: Assets, Liabilities, and Stockholders’ Equity • Income Statement: Revenues and Expenses

  7. Example Chart of Accounts

  8. Recording Transactions (Processing) • Journalizing process: • Specify each account affected by the transaction • Classify each account as either asset, liability, stockholders’ equity, revenue, or expense • Determine whether each account is increased or decreased (use rules of debit and credit) • Record the transaction in a journal with a brief explanation.

  9. The Account Assets - economic resources that benefit the business now and in the future • Cash • Accounts receivable • Inventory • Notes receivable • Prepaid expenses • Land • Buildings • Equipment, furniture, and fixtures

  10. The Account Liabilities - debts of the company • Notes payable • Accounts payable • Accrued liabilities • Long-term liabilities (bonds)

  11. The Account Stockholders’ (owners’ or shareholders’) equity - owners’ claims against the assets of a corporation • Common Stock • Retained Earnings • Revenues • Expenses

  12. Accounting for Business Transactions 1. The Lyons invest $50,000 to begin the business, and Air & Sea Travel issues common stock. (1) 50,000 50,000

  13. Accounting for Business Transactions 2. Air & Sea purchases land for an office location, paying $40,000 in cash • (40,000) 40,000 Bal 10,000 40,000 50,000

  14. Accounting for Business Transactions 3. The business buys office supplies, agreeing to pay $500 to the office-supply store within 30 days. (3) 500 500 Bal 10,000 500 40,000 500 50,000

  15. Accounting for Business Transactions 4. Air & Sea Travel earns service revenue of $5,500 and collects this amount in cash. (4) 5,500 5,500 Bal 15,500 500 40,000 500 50,000 5,500

  16. Accounting for Business Transactions 5. Air & Sea Travel performs services for customers on account for $3,000. (5) 3,000 3,000 Bal 15,500 3,000 500 40,000 500 50,000 8,500

  17. Accounting for Business Transactions 6. Air & Sea Travel pays $2,700 for cash expenses: office rent $1,100, employee salary $1,200, and utilities $400. (6) (2,700) (2,700) Bal 12,800 3,000 500 40,000 500 50,000 5,800 Bal 12,800 3,000 500 40,000 500 50,000 5,800

  18. Accounting for Business Transactions 7. Air & Sea Travel pays $400 to the store from which it purchased office supplies in Transaction 3. (7) (400) (400) Bal 12,400 3,000 500 40,000 100 50,000 5,800

  19. Accounting for Business Transactions 8. The owners remodel their home at a cost of $30,000, paying cash from personal funds. This is a personal transaction, not a business transaction!

  20. Accounting for Business Transactions • The business collects $1,000 from a customer on account. (9) 1,000 (1,000) Bal 13,400 2,000 500 40,000 100 50,000 5,800

  21. Accounting for Business Transactions 10. Air & Sea Travel sells land for a price of $22,000, which is equal to the amount it paid for the land. (10) 22,000 (22,000) Bal 35,400 2,000 500 18,000 100 50,000 5,800

  22. Accounting for Business Transactions 11. The corporation declares a dividend and pays $2,100 cash to the stockholders. (11) (2,100) (2,100) Bal 33,300 2,000 500 18,000 100 50,000 3,700

  23. Income Statement

  24. Statement of Retained Earnings

  25. Balance Sheet

  26. Air & Sea TravelStatement of Cash FlowsMonth Ended April 30, 20x3 Cash flows from operating activities: Collections from customers ($5,500 + $1,000) $ 6,500 Cash payments to suppliers and employees ($2,700 + $400) (3,100) Net cash inflow from operating activities $ 3,400 Cash flows from investing activities: Acquisition of land $(40,000) Sale of land 22,000 Net cash outflow from investing activities (18,000) Cash flows from financing activities: Issuance (sale) of stock $50,000 Payment of dividends (2,100) Net cash inflows from financing activities $47,900 Net increase (decrease) in cash $33,300 Cash balance, April 1, 20x5 0 Cash balance, April 30, 20x5 $33,300

  27. Learning Objective 2 Understand how accounting works.

  28. ACG2021Financial Accounting Double-Entry Accounting Understanding Debits/Credits

  29. Double-Entry Accounting Record the dual effects of each business transaction.

  30. Cash (Left Side) (Right Side) Debit Credit Double Entry Accounting • Each accounting transaction affects at least two accounts. • T-accounts can be used to represent accounts and their increases and decreases. • Every business transactions involves both a debit and a credit

  31. Common Stock Cash Credit for increase, $50,000 Debit for Increase, $50,000 Using T-Accounts Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders Equity Stockholders’ Equity Assets Liabilities = Debit + Credit - Debit - Credit + Debit - Credit +

  32. Common Stock + Retained Earnings - Dividends + Revenues - Expenses Stockholders’ Equity Accounts Expanded Accounting Equation Assets Liabilities = Stockholders’ Equity

  33. Assets Debit + Credit - Dividends Expenses Debit + Credit - Debit + Credit - Using T-Accounts Expanded Accounts that are increased with debits and have normal debit balances

  34. Stockholders’ Equity Liabilities Debit - Credit + Debit - Credit + Retained Earnings Revenue Debit - Credit + Debit - Credit + Using T-Accounts Expanded Accounts that are increased with credits and have normal credit balances

  35. Cash Common Stock 50,000 Bal. 50,000 Land Using T-Accounts Credit for decrease, 40,000 The balance in an account is the difference between the sum of the debits and the sum of the credits. Bal. 10,000 Debit for Increase, 40,000 Bal. 40,000

  36. Recording Transactions • Accounting transactions are entered in chronological order in the journal • Lists the Sequence of Business Events • What happened • What Accounts were effected • What $’s were exchanged

  37. Recording Transactions • Journalizing process: • Specify each account affected by the transaction • Classify each account as either asset, liability, stockholders’ equity, revenue, or expense • Determine whether each account is increased or decreased (use rules of debit and credit) • Record the transaction in a journal with a brief explanation. Debits are at the left margin and credits are indented

  38. Posting from Journal to Accounts / General Ledger DATE ACCOUNTS AND EXPLANATION DEBIT CREDIT Apr 2 Cash ………………………………. 50,000 Common Stock ………...….... 50,000 Issued common stock Common Stock Cash 50,000 50,000

  39. Posting to Accounts / General Ledger • Journal does not sort Business Events by Account • Thus, journal entries are periodically Posted to their respective Accounts • The Ledger

  40. Flow of Accounting Data • Transaction occurs • Transaction analyzed • Transaction entered in journal • Amounts posted to the ledger accounts

  41. Trial Balance • A trial balance lists all accounts with their balances • Accounts are listed with assets first, then liabilities, then stockholders’ equity, revenues, and finally expenses • The trial balance • summarizes account balances • shows whether total debits equal total credits

  42. Example Trial Balance

  43. Finding Errors • Find the difference between total debits and total credits. • Search for a missing account with that balance. • Divide the difference by 2 and search for a debit recorded as a credit or vice-versa. • Divide the difference by 9. If you get an even amount, you may have either a slide or a transposition.

  44. End of Chapter 2