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Political Agenda Policy

Political Agenda Policy

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Political Agenda Policy

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  1. Political Agenda Policy Chapter 15

  2. Setting the Political Agenda - What gets into the political realm to later become a policy? A. What belongs on the Agenda? 1. Shared beliefs of the people 2. Major impact of events 3. Changes in the way political elites think and talk about politics 4. Change in public opinion 5. Weight of custom and religion B. the legitimate scope of government action 1. Grows in time of crisis 2. Changes in attitudes and events tend to increase government activity C. Groups: a motivating force in adding new issues 1. May be organized (corporations) or disorganized (urban minorities) 2. May reproduce and expand the government agenda Ex: New commissions and laws 3. May change values and beliefs of others

  3. D. Institutions that create new issues 1. The Courts a) Make decisions that force action by other branches: When congress and the president fail to react a catalyst acts; House not involved -School desegregation -Abortion b) Courts facilitate change when there is no popular majority 2. Bureaucracy professionalism of reform a) Thinks up problems to solve b) More professional and more trusted c) Pro-active view 3. Senate a) Very activist compared to the past b) Source of presidential candidates’ new ideas 4. Media- moves ideas onto the agenda a) Lets people know what issues are most important

  4. Making a Decision A. Nature of the issue 1. Affects the groups that participate 2. Affects the intensity of the conflict B. Cost & Benefits of proposed policy 1. Cost: any burden monetary or non-monetary that some people expect to bear from policy 2. Benefit: any satisfaction monetary or non- monetary that some people receives from a policy 3. Politics is a process of disputes over cost vs. benefits and who benefits 4. People prefer programs that provide benefits at low costs.

  5. Majoritarian Politics -         distributed benefits, distributed costs A. gives benefits/costs to large #’s B. involves appeals to large blocks of voters C. Debate is conducted in ideological terms, for example, military benefit

  6. Interest group politics - Concentrated benefits, concentrated costs A. Benefits and costs are given imposed on small identifiable group B. Debate without public involvement; it is carried on by interest groups Ex: Labor vs. Business

  7. Client Politics - Concentrated benefits, distributed costs - breaks from American government A. Relatively small groups benefit; groups have incentive to organize B. Beneficiaries are “client” of the government Ex: Sugar growers

  8. Entrepreneurial politics - distributed benefits, concentrated costs A. Success depends on people who work for the unorganized majorities B. Success also depends on legitimacy of claim Ex: A superfund force an industry to pay $ * Ralph Nadar consumer

  9. Benefits and Costs Chart

  10. BUSINESS REGULATION A. Government tends to be pro business 1. Congress has similar background (both have money) the more money, the more likely to influence someone in the government 2. Market economy is pro-business 3. Wealth can buy political power B. Majoritarian Politics - pay a lot, people get a lot 1. Sherman Act (1890) 2. Clayton Act (1914) Both were created to break up trusts (Monopolies- one corporation controlling an industry) C. Interest group politics -pay a little, people get a little - Most common 1. Labor Unions vs. Management Democratic Republican

  11. a) NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) - agency created by the government made of a member board that has 5 year terms; They are appointed by the president and approved by Congress b) OSHA (Occupation Safety and Health Administration) - Both were labor laws passed and they both benefited the worker NOT management. D. Client politics - pay a lot, people get a little 1. licensing of jobs (attorneys, barbers) - this keeps competition and protects industry 2. Regulation of industry (sugar, milk) - prices are set higher than they should be to prevent competition from other countries and maximize profits E. Entrepreneurial politics- Nadar consumer • - pay a little, get a lot • 1. Galvanize public • a) Mobilize congressional support • Ex: Clean Air Act is a direct result

  12. Perceptions, Beliefs, Interests A. Problems 1. Cost or benefit is a matter of perception 2. Not always monetary B. Types of Arguments 1. Here and Now- instant gratification 2. Cost Argument- cost is always going to affect benefits C. Values 1. More concerned with self-interest D. Deregulation 1. Government regulation bad for competition/ consumer 2. Reducing subsides for tobacco growers 3. Recent presidents are moving toward deregulation costs starting with Ford (Republicans)