prof bruno pierri istituzioni politiche anglo americane e analisi dei linguaggi specifici n.
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Prof. Bruno Pierri Istituzioni politiche anglo-americane e analisi dei linguaggi specifici

Prof. Bruno Pierri Istituzioni politiche anglo-americane e analisi dei linguaggi specifici

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Prof. Bruno Pierri Istituzioni politiche anglo-americane e analisi dei linguaggi specifici

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  1. Prof. Bruno Pierri Istituzioni politiche anglo-americane e analisi dei linguaggi specifici United Nations Structure and Language: Security Council Resolution 242 of 1967 April 23rd, 2009

  2. United Nations: A Short History • Failure of League of Nations • World War II • San Francisco Conference • Stalin, Roosevelt (Truman), Churchill (Attlee) • International Organisation with aim to facilitate cooperation in international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and world peace • Initially 51 member States • Currently 192 member States • Headquarters in New York City

  3. United Nations General Assembly • Main deliberative body, composed of all members • Assembly meets in regular sessions under president elected from among member States • When General Assembly votes on important questions, two-thirds majority is required • Each member has one vote • GA Resolutions usually non-binding • Recommendations on any matter, except peace and security

  4. United Nations Security Council • Security Council charged with maintaining peace and security • Binding decisions that member governments have agreed to carry out • Security Council is made up of 15 member States, consisting of 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members • Permanent members hold veto power over substantive but not procedural resolutions: power to block adoption but not to block debate of a resolution • SC Resolutions adopted if there is three-fifths majority (9 out of 15), if not vetoed by any permanent member

  5. UN Secretariat and Secretary-General • Secretariat headed by Secretary-General, who is assisted by international civil servants. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations • Secretary-General's duties include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on implementation of Security Council decisions • De facto spokesman and leader of the UN • Secretary-General can bring to the SC’s attention "any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security“

  6. Six-Day War, 1967 • Decade from 1956 to 1967 was “peaceful time” in Arab-Israeli relations • Settlement of Suez, 1956-1957: • UN forces in Sharm-el-Sheik, Gaza & border • Prevented terrorist raids • Secured Israeli access to Red Sea

  7. Six-Day War, 1967 • Water dispute: A) In 1964 Israel began withdrawing water from Jordan River B) In 1965 Arab states began construction of Headwater Diversion Plan to divert waters (banias, Hasbani, Yarmuk) before they entered Israel, to flow instead into a dam for use by Jordan and Syria C) Israel Defence Forces (IDF) attacked diversion works in Syria D) Prolonged chain of border violence E) In 1966 Ba’athist party comes to power in Syria: • Close ties with USSR • Terrorist operations and raids into Israel

  8. Six-Day War, 1967 • In May 1967 USSR warns Egypt of Israeli attack on Syria • Soviets were clearly wrong • UN inspections found no Israeli preparations • Egypt expelled United Nations staff from Sinai • Egypt amassed 1,000 tanks and nearly 100,000 soldiers on the border with Israel and blocked Straits of Tiran • Nasser threatened to wipe out Israel • Syria began shelling Israeli civilians from Golan Heights

  9. Six-Day War, 1967 • On June 5, 1967, Israel launched pre-emptive attack • Jordan then attacked West Jerusalem • On June 10 Israel had gained control of Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, East Jerusalem, Golan Heights • Diplomacy: UNSC Res 242, Nov 22, 1967

  10. UNSC Resolution 242, 1967Glossary • Concern= preoccupazione • Just and lasting peace = pace giusta e duratura • To undertake = impegnarsi, assumere un impegno • fulfillment = realizzazione • Claim = rivendicazione • states of belligerency = stati di belligeranza • acknowledgement = riconoscimento • settlement = soluzione • refugee = profugo • provisions = indicazioni

  11. Main Points of Resolution • “inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war” – sentence condemning Israel, but also Arabs who want to destroy Israel • “just and lasting peace in which every State in the area can live in security” – every State means also Israel. Condemnation of Israeli occupation, but also recognition of Israeli right to live in peace within secure and recognized borders • “Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict” - Semantic argument is about whether Israel's obligations include withdrawal from all the territories occupied or whether these obligations could be satisfied by withdrawal from part of the territories • French version vs. English version A) French version: Retrait des forces armées israéliennes des territoires occupés lors du récent conflit. B) Original English version: absence of definite article "the" C) Drafters support Israeli version: “if we had put in “the” or “all the”, that could only have meant that we wished to see the 1967 boundaries perpetuated in the form of a permanent frontier. This I was certainly not prepared to recommend” D) Arabs and their supporters say Israel must withdraw from all territories E) Language unclear because in any case either US or USSR would have vetoed Resolution F) France's ambassador to the UN stated that correct interpretation is that "the" is not added to the text. French position is that Israel does not need to withdraw from all occupied territories

  12. Main points of Resolution • “Termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force” – however we interpret first sentence, Resolutions says that no real peace possible unless every State in the area (including Israel) is able to live in peace within recognized borders. Hence, borders must be object of negotiation and Arabs cannot threaten destruction of Israel • “freedom of navigation through international waterways in the area” – Suez Canal, which Arabs had always denied for Israel • “just settlement of the refugee problem” – recognition of rights of Palestinians, who are not nominated, because no one, not even Arab States, wanted another Arab independent State

  13. UNSC Resolution 242, 1967 • Supporters of the "Israeli viewpoint" focus on the phrase calling for "secure and recognized boundaries" and note that resolution calls for withdrawal "from territories" • Supporters of “Arab viewpoint" focus on phrase emphasizing "inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war", and note that certain, though unofficial, translations say "from the territories"