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Objectives: To understand the difference between a solvent and solute PowerPoint Presentation
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Objectives: To understand the difference between a solvent and solute

Objectives: To understand the difference between a solvent and solute

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Objectives: To understand the difference between a solvent and solute

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  1. Unit: SolutionsTopic: Molarity Objectives: • To understand the difference between a solvent and solute • To understand the process of dissolution • To understand how polar and nonpoloar substances dissolve • To understand Molarity in terms of solution concentration • To understand how to calculate Molarity given moles, volume or molarity (M)

  2. Solutions • Most of the important chemistry that keeps plants animals and humans alive takes place in aqueous solutions • Even water that comes our of your faucet is a solution because it has dissolved minerals in it • If you recall, a solution is a homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled • Salt water is homogeneous mixture in which the first sip will be the same as the last sip

  3. Solutions • Solutions are not just made of liquids • Solutions can be solids and gases as well • Consider brass, brass is a solution made up of copper and zinc • A gaseous solution would be air • Air is made up of mostly nitrogen(80%) and oxygen (20%)

  4. What is a Solution? • a ______ mixture of ___or more substances (usually liquid) • Ex: "he used a solution of sugar and water" Answer Bank Largest concentration dissolve(s) Homogeneous Lesser Polar Higher Surface Crystal Temperature Two

  5. Solutions • The substance present in the largest amount is called the solvent (usually water) • The other substance in lesser amounts is called the solute

  6. What is the difference between a solvent and a solute? • The substance present in the _____amount is called the solvent (usually water) • The other substance in ____amounts is called the solute Answer Bank Largest concentration dissolve(s) Homogeneous Lesser Polar Higher Surface Crystal Temperature Two

  7. Practice:Complete the table by identifying the solvent and solute for each solution:

  8. Water Polarity • Remember, a water molecule has a negative and positive dipole or charge to it • The oxygen atom gives it a slight negative charge while the two hydrogen atoms give it a slight positive charge • These strong charges rip and remove sodium and chlorine atoms individually - + +

  9. - - - - - When a compound such as salt dissolves in water we call this solvation

  10. Let’s see what happens when salt dissolves in water……

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  13. Animation http://www.chem.iastate.edu/group/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/thermochem/solutionSalt.html

  14. What is Solvation (dissolution)? • The process by which a compound such as salt _____in water • NaCl  Na+1 + Cl-1 Answer Bank Largest concentration dissolve(s) Homogeneous Lesser Polar Higher Surface Crystal Temperature Two

  15. Polar vs. Nonpolar H2O = polar electrons shared unequally resulting in a slight positive charge and a slight negative charge asymetrical geometry CH4 methane = nonpolar electrons shared equally No charge symetrical geometry

  16. What’s the difference between polar and non-polar molecules? H2O = polar electrons shared unequally resulting in a slight positive charge and a slight negative charge asymetrical geometry CH4 methane = nonpolar electrons shared equally No charge symetrical geometry

  17. Solubility of Polar Molecules - • Because water is a polar molecule it can dissolve ions such as chlorine and sodium • But water can also dissolve other nonionic molecules such as ethanol, more commonly known as alcohol • Like water, Ethanol has a polar O—H end to it with a positive and negative charge to it + + - +

  18. Solubility of Polar Molecules • Ethanol dissolves in water because it is polar molecule • Polar molecules can dissolve other polar molecules + Hydrogen Bond - + - + + - +

  19. Solubility of Polar Molecules • Because sugar and alcohol are both polar molecules they are soluble (will dissolve in water) • Polar molecules will dissolve in another polar liquid like water • We say “like dissolves like” • That is, polar molecules will dissolve other polar molecules

  20. Substances Insoluble in Water • But what about molecules or substances that are nonpolar? • Why do nonpolar molecules not dissolve in in polar water molecules? • Methane is a nonpolar molecule and has no overall charge to it. It has a symetrical geometry an the electrons are equally distributed • Therefore, there is no attraction between the two molecules which prevent it from being soluble (dissolving)

  21. Substances Insoluble in Water Many substances do not dissolve in water For example oil does not mix with water because it is made up of nonpolar molecules The C—H bond has a low negativity and the electrons are shared equally The result are nonpolar bonds that do no mix with the polar water molecule

  22. How Substances Dissolve One rule of thumb that chemists use and worth remembering is “like dissolves like” In other words, polar molecules will dissolve polar molecules Nonpolar molecules will dissolve nonpolar molecules

  23. What’s the difference between polar and non-polar substances? • Polar substances will ______(soluble) in _____substances (alcohol & water) • Non-polar substances (methane, oil) will not _____(insoluble) in ____substances (think oil and water or vinegar and water) • “like dissolves like!” Answer Bank Largest concentration dissolve(s) Homogeneous Lesser Polar Higher Surface Crystal Temperature Two

  24. Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution • What do you think effects how fast salt will dissolve in water? • 3 things to consider is surface area, stirring, and temperature

  25. Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution • When considering surface are, smaller salt crystals will dissolve faster than larger salt crystals • Temperature causes the molecules to move faster increasing te rate of dissolution • Finally, stirring removes newly dissolved particles from the solid surface and continuously exposes the surface to fresh solvent (water molecules)

  26. What factors affect the rate of dissolution? • 3 things: • _____ area • stirring, and • __________ Answer Bank Largest concentration dissolve(s) Homogeneous Lesser Polar Higher Surface Crystal Temperature Two

  27. Molarity When dealing with aqueous solutions, chemists often describe a solution in terms of concentration We define the concentration of a solution as the amount of solute in a given volume of solution The most commonly used expression of concentration when dealing with aqueous solutions is Molarity (M)

  28. Molarity Molarity describes the amount of solute in moles in the volume in liters Molarity is describes the amount of solute in moles and volume of the solution in liters Molarity is define as the number of moles of solute per volume of solution in liters, or…. M = Molarity = moles of solute liters of solution

  29. What is Molarity (M)? The number of _____ of solute per _____of solution in liters, or…. M = Molarity = moles of solute liters of solution Answer Bank liters concentrated moles Molarity(M) volume solute

  30. Practice: Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.5 grams of solid NaOH in enough water to make 1.5 Liter solution Since the molarity requires mole and we are given gram, we need to convert grams to mols M = moles of solute liters of solution Remember the definition of Molarity: M = moles of solute liters of solution We are given the following information: Mass of solute = 11.5 grams Volume of Solution = 1.5 Liters 11.5 g NaOH 1 mol NaOH = 0.288 mol NaOH 40.0 g NaOH Now that we have mols we can solve for Molarity M= moles of solute = 0.288 mol NaOH = 0.192 MNaOH liters of solution 1.50 L of solution

  31. Practice: Calculate the Molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 1.56 g of gaseous HCl into enough water to make 26.8mL of solution Since the molarity requires mole and we are given gram, we need to convert grams to mols M = moles of solute liters of solution Remember the definition of Molarity: M = moles of solute liters of solution We are given the following information: Mass of solute = 1.56 grams Volume of Solution = 28.6 mL 1.56 g HCl 1 mol HCl = 0.0427 mol HCl 36.5 g HCl Now that we have mol we can solve for Molarity Don’t forget to convert millileters into liters! M= moles of solute = 0.0427mol HCl = 1.59 M HCl liters of solution 0.0268Lof solution

  32. Practice: How many grams of magnesium chloride MgCl2 are needed to make 6.0 L of a 3.0 M solution? Remember the definition of Molarity: M = moles of solute liters of solution Since we have molarity and we have liters, we To solve for moles and then convert to grams M = moles of solute liters of solution We are given the following information: Molarity of solution = 3.0 M Volume of Solution = 6.0 L 18 mol MgCl2 95.3 g MgCl2 = 1,715 g mol MgCl2 1 molMgCl2 Molarity only deal in Moles, so solving for moles we get: 3.0M = mol MgCl2 6 L of solution moles MgCl2 = (3.0 M)(6.0 L) = 18 mol MgCl2

  33. Demo: • I am going to make a 1M solution of CuSO4 • Can anyone tell how to make it? • Why don’t we make things easy. • I have a 1000ml beaker (1.0 liter) • And 159.5 grams (molar mass) which is equal to 1 mole of CuSO4 • By dissolving 159.5 grams of CuSO4 in water, a made a 2M solution of CuSO4 Molarity (M) = 1 moles of solute = 2M 0.5 liters of solution

  34. Summarize: • Gases can be solutions. Air contains 21%O2 and 79% N2, so oxygen is the solute and ___________is the solvent • In the expression like dissolves like, the word like refers to similarity in molecular ___________. • Molarity is equal to ______ divided _____ • The more _________ a solution is, the higher the ________ • Molarity describes the amount of ____in moles in the volume in liters Answer Bank liters concentrated moles Molarity(M) volume Solute Oxygen Nitrogen polarity