Writing Persuasive Media Copy Developing and writing Commercials, Promotions, and Announcements
Persuasion • Persuasion is a type of communication that interests many people • advertiser • political candidates and parties • public organizations such as public health organizations or MADD • religious organizations
Spot Lengths • Generally 30 seconds or 60 seconds • Estimating time by words • “dime” spot -20 to 25 words “wall to wall” • 30 second spot -70 to 80 words “wall to wall” • split 30 -two 15 second spots • 60 second -135-145 “wall to wall”
Persuasive Spots • Commercial Spots • The Public Service Announcement -PSA • Promo or promotional • Station ID • You are listening to W-U-A-G, one-oh-three point one, Greensboro.
Demographics age, gender, economic level, political orientation, occupation, education, ethnicity, geographical location Psychographics lifestyles, interests, attitudes, beliefs Audience Analysis
Audience Analysis • Affirmative audience • Dissident audience • Skeptical audience • Apathetic audience
Creativity • Creative people will make unlikely combinations to make a point or draw attention • The same is true of copywriters
Persuasive Creativity • Writers for Trigon Blue Cross designed this spot for television, but the spot found its way to the internet, where it is passed around because it is so cute. What a tribute to its creators. • Notice how two unlikely things are paired: • A little boy talking about a movie • And health care Windows Media Mac QuickTime
Rational and Emotional Appeals Understanding human motivation
Logical Appeals persuasion based on facts or product claims product or service fills practical needs economy safety performance maintenance Logical and Emotional Appeals
Logical and Emotional Appeals • Emotional Appeals • appeals to emotional needs such as power or prestige • sex appeal • patriotism • family values • peer acceptance
Appeals and Needs • Advertisers construct the persuasive appeals of commercial messages based on their perceptions of audience needs.
Human Needs • Abraham Maslow established the theory of a hierarchy of human needs, believing that human beings are motivated to action by unsatisfied needs.
Maslowe’s Hierarchy • Certain lower needs must be realized before higher needs can be satisfied, just as a person must cross lower stairs in order to reach the top step.
Abraham Maslow • According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can reach self-actualization (and act unselfishly).
Satisfying Needs • Satisfying needs is healthy, blocking gratification of needs can makes us sick or evil. We are all "needs junkies" with cravings that must be satisfied and should be satisfied. Else, we become sick and dysfunctional.
Physiological Needs • Most Basic • Air • Water • Food • Sleep • Clothing • Shelter
Safety Needs • Establishing stability and consistency in a chaotic world • Safety can be Psychological • Safety needs can motivate religious belief –religion can comfort with the promise of a secure place after we die and leave the insecurity of this world
Love Needs • Human beings have a desire to belong to groups, clubs, families, couples • We need nonsexual love -- to be accepted and appreciated by others • We need friends
Self Esteem Competence and mastery of tasks Peer Esteem Attention and recognition from others for our competencies Can be related to desire for power Esteem Needs
Self-Actualization • The desire to reach the fullest self potential • Seek knowledge, inner peace, aesthetic experiences, oneness with God, etc.
Audiences and Attitudes • Need Driven Audiences 1. Survivors rooted in poverty 2. Sustainers fortunes drastically ebb and flow with the state of the economy
Outer-Directed Audiences Belongers–largest and least wealthy-- being accepted is extremely important to this group --tend to prefer heritage brands Emulators–want to be accepted, noticed and envied-will sacrifice economy and maintenance for looks Achievers–have acquired success and economic status but continue to push for more social prizes
Inner-Directed Audiences • I-Am-Me Audience –group in transition –unpredictable • Experientials –securely inner-directed, concerned with self expression and personal goals • Socially conscious – personal needs defined by social responsibility
Integrated Audience • Making up no more than two percent of the population, this group is so self-assured they can combine both inner and outer directed values in their preferences without self- contradiction.
Logical Appeals • Advertising appeals to needs at the basic and middle rungs of the hierarchy of human needs. • Appeals to physiological needs • Safety needs • Needs for community or belonging • Tend to involve claims of fact
SIMPLE Logical Appeals • S afety • Indulgence • M aintenance • P erformance • L ooks • E conomy
Safety • Listeners and viewers want to know if a product will make them sick, ruin their plumbing or injure the psyches of their children • Consumer and industry action groups have caused the advertising of tobacco to be banned for safety reasons • Advertisers appealing to safety assure consumers that their product is safe to use
Indulgence Traveling first class may be an indulgence –more expensive than economy- but may also make someone traveling for business more productive –arriving rested and ready to work.
Maintenance • Some things involve more upkeep from the consumer than others • A product that is useful for a long time or a service with long term benefits may overcome a higher sticker price • A product that must be replaced, fixed or repaired often may not command as high a value.
Performance • Will the product or service function in the way the consumer expects? • Does it meet a consumer’s need?
Looks • Often considered an emotional attraction –the least rational • Evaluates on how appealing something is to the eye • For example, it is rationally important that paint look good –its primary function is visual.
Economy • Deals directly with costs • If something is expensive, is it worth what you pay for? • Is an activity wasteful?
Emotional Appeals • Deal with needs on the middle to upper rungs of the hierarchy. • Human desire for amusement and pleasure.
Emotional Appeals • PLEASURE • P eople Interest • L aughter • E nlightenment • A llurement • S ensation • U niqueness • R ivalry • E steem
Emotional Appeals • People Interest –nosiness, human curiosity about others • Laughter –human enjoyment of humor • Enlightenment –need for information • Allurement –sex appeal • Sensation –senses --sight, sound, taste, smell, touch • Uniqueness -novelty • Rivalry –the drama of conflict • Esteem –snob appeal