Importance of Physical Activity In Maintaining The Calorie Balance Dr.Y.VenkataRamanaM.Sc, Ph.D Scientist - D Dept. Work of Physiology & Sports Nutrition National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR) Hyderabad – 500 007, (A.P), INDIA. E-mail:email@example.com
CONCEPT OF POSITIVE HEALTH (HIPPOCRATIC PHYSICIANS – 5th CENTURY BC) “Positive health requires a knowledge of man’s primary constitution (which today we call genetics) and of the powers of various foods, both those natural to them and those resulting from human skill (today’s processed food). But eating alone is not enough for health. There must also be exercise, of which the effects must likewise be known. The combination of these two things makes regimen, when proper attention is given to the season of the year, the changes of winds, the age of the individual and the situation of his home. If there is any deficiency in food or exercise the body will fall sick”.
CONCEPTUAL MODEL DESCRIBING THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PHYSICAL FITNESS • HEALTH STATUS • WELL BEING • DISEASE • DEATH • OTHER FACTORS • GENETICS • LIFE STYLE • PA, PINA, NUTRITION, SMOKING, ALCOHOL • PHYSICAL & SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT • Etc…
THE ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION The equation for energy balance is Ein = Eout. This means that caloric intake equals caloric output.
Energy Balance Equation Energy Balance “State in which energy intake, in the form of food and /or alcohol, matches the energy expended, primarily through basal metabolism and physical activity” • Positive energy balance • Energy intake > energy expended • Results in weight gain • Negative energy balance • Energy intake < energy expended • Results in weight loss
ENERGY INTAKE ENERGY OUTPUT Maintenance of Body.Wt & B.Comp ENERGY BALANCE 24hr. ENERGY EXPENDITURE T A P (Recall method/Actual observation) B M R Energy cost of standard Activities Use of BMR Factors for other activities 24hrENERGY INTAKE ASSESSMENT BY Actual Weighment/24hr Recall method Information on Raw food items Cooked foods Individual consumption
COMPONENTS OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE (TO SUGGEST ENERGY ALLOWANCES) B M R -- 8 Hours Sleep D I T GROWTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITIES (8 Hours) - SEDENTARY - MODERATE - HEAVY - SPORTS - TYPE OF EVENT - PHASE OF TRAINING - DURATION - INTENSITY - FREQUENCY DISCRETIONARY ACTIVITIES (8 Hours) - OPTIONAL HOUSE HOLD ACTIVITES - SOCIALLY DESIRABLE ACTIVITIES - PHYSICAL FITNESS FOR HEALTH PROMOTION
ENERGY COSTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES ENERGY ZONES (Kcal/min/60kg) 1. SLEEPING, RESTING, RELAXING.1.0 2. SITTING, SITTING (LIGHT ACTIVITIES): EATING, READING, WRITING, LISTENING, TALKING.1.5 3. STANDING, STANDING (LIGHT ACTIVITY): WASHING FACE, SHAVING, COMBING, WATERING PLANTS.2.3 4. WALKING SLOW), DRIVING, DUSTING, BATHING, DRESSING, MARKETING, CHILDCARE. 2.8 5. LIGHT MANUAL WORK: SWEEPING, CLEANING UTENSILS, WASHING CLOTHS, OTHER HOUSE CHORES.3.3 6. WARM-UP & RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES, WALKING UP/DOWN STAIRS, CYCLING, FETCHING WATER. 4.8 7. MANUAL WORK (MODERATE PACE), LOADING/UNLOADING, WALKING WITH LOAD, HARVESTING, CARPENTRY, PLUMBING. 5.6 8. PRACTICE OF NON-COMPETITIVE SPORT/GAMES, CYCLING (15KMPH), GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, DIGGING. 6.0 9. HIGH INTENSE MANUAL WORK & SPORTS ACTIVITIES – TOURNAMENTS, WOOD CUTTING, CARRYING HEAVY LOADS, RUNNING, JOGGING. 7.8
THE FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID FOR HEALTHY EATING FATS, OILS, SWEETS NUTS BEANS MEAT FISH POULTRY MILK YOGURT CHEESE VEGETABLES FRUITS RICE, CEREALS, BREAD BALANCE DIET% ENERGY - CARBOHYDRATES50 – 55 - FATS25 – 30 - PROTEINS12 - 15
REVERSE – FOOD PYRAMID FATS FATS SWEETS FATS OILS OILS OILS SWEETS SWEETS FATS SWEETS OILS FATS MILK YOUGURT CHEESE NUTSBEANS VEGETABLES FRUITS BREAD CEREALS RICE OBESITY
Secular Trends - Food Habits Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in the last one decade?
PIZZA 10 Years Ago Today 200 calories 6-inch diameter How many calories are in this pizza?
PIZZA 10 Years Ago Today 200 calories 6-inch diameter 550 calories 12-inch diameter Calorie Difference: 210 calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to work in order to burn the extra 350 calories?* *Based on 70kg person
Calories In = Calories Out If you work for 70 minutes you will burn the extra 350 calories.* *Based on 70kg person
CHEESEBURGER Today 10 Years Ago 333 calories How many calories are in today’s cheeseburger?
CHEESEBURGER Today 10 Years Ago 333 calories 590 calories Calorie Difference: 257 calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to lift weights in order to burn the extra 257 calories?* *Based on 70kg person
Calories In = Calories Out If you lift weights for 1 hour and 30 minutes,you will burn approximately 257 calories.* *Based on 70kg person
FRENCH FRIES 10 Years Ago Today 210 Calories How many calories are in today’s portion of fries?
FRENCH FRIES 10 Years Ago Today 210 Calories 400 Calories Calorie Difference: 210 Calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to walk leisurely in order to burn those extra 210 calories?* *Based on 70kg person
Calories In = Calories Out If you walk leisurely for 1 hour and 10 minutesyou will burn approximately 210 calories.* *Based on 70kg person
BEVERAGE 10 Years Ago Today 85 Calories How many calories are in today’s portion?
BEVERAGE 10 Years Ago Today 85 Calories 250 Calories Calorie Difference: 165 Calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to work in the garden to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 70kg person
Calories In = Calories Out If you work in the garden for 35 minutes, you will burn approximately 165 calories.* *Based on 70kg person
The BAD news … 4.05 kgweight gain per year 100 extra calories per day 36500÷9000
Secular Trends - Physical Activity Influence of Technology on Life Style
Secular Trends - Physical Activity 100K.cal 70K.Cal 100K.cal 180K.Cal 85K.cal 70K.cal 45 K.Cal 70K.cal 40K.Cal 45K.cal (K.cal/30 min)
Secular Trends - Physical Activity 100K.cal 110K.cal 110K.cal 70K.cal 90K.cal 45K.cal 45K.cal 45K.cal (K.cal/30 min)
Secular Trends - Physical Activity 160K.cal 140K.cal 70K.cal 45K.cal 180K.cal 45K.cal 70K.cal 99K.cal 80K.cal 70K.cal (K.cal/30 min)
Concepts of Physical Fitness Lifestyle Approach! • Healthy eating habits • A shift in increased physical activity patterns A simple AND effective method for long-term weight control & Physical Fitness.
WHO Definition of Physical activity “Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure”. Physical inactivity, (a lack of physical activity) is an independent risk factor for chronic diseases, and overall is estimated to cause 1.9 million deaths globally.
TERMINOLOGY Physical Activates: Any body movements produced by muscles that results in Energy expenditure. Exercise: Physical activity that is planned, structured repetitive and purposeful. Physical fitness: A set of attributes that relate to the ability of people to perform physical activity without fatigue. Health: Physical, mental and social well being, not simply the absence of disease. Health-Related physical fitness: Components of physical fitness that are associated with some aspects of health. Ex: Cardio respiratory endurance, Muscular endurance, Muscular strength, Body composition, Flexibility etc……
Getting in the Exercise Habit • Begin with a medical checkup. • Experiment with different kinds of exercise • and choose several that interest you. • There are exercise options to suit every taste • and budget. • Can exercise outdoors, at school or a fitness • center, or at home. • Gradually increase exercise from five to ten • minutes to 30min to 60min three times a week.
A Work Out That Works The word exercise covers a lot of different activities, from walking to weight lifting. The best exercise is any kind that keeps the whole body moving for at least 30 minutes, makes you breathe harder than usual, makes you sweat, and gets your heart beating faster. A good exercise routine involves the following four things: Warming up Stretching Conditioning Cooling down/Warm down
Types of Exercise • 1.Stretching • Keeps the body flexible and can help prevent injury. • 2.Aerobic • Gives lungs and heart a workout. • Helps lower the risk of heart disease. • Exercises include walking, jogging, climbing stairs, • bicycling, aerobic dance, and swimming. • 3.Strengthening Exercises • Builds strong muscles in the arms, legs, and torso.
Health-Related Fitness Components • Sufficient Flexibility • Adequate Muscular Endurance • Adequate Strength • Cardiovascular Endurance • Healthy Body Composition
Walking briskly (about 3½ miles per hour) Gardening/yard work Hiking Golf (walking and carrying clubs) Weight training (general light workout) Bicycling (less than 10 miles per hour) Dancing MODERATEphysical activities
150 K.Cal 185 K.Cal 120 K.Cal 165 K.Cal 190 K.Cal 170 K.Cal 170 K.Cal MODERATEphysical activities For 30 minutes
Aerobics Heavy yard work, such as chopping wood Swimming (freestyle laps) Basketball (Competitive) Walking very Fast (4 ½ mph) Bicycling (more than 10 miles per hour) Weight Lifting (Vigorous Effort) Running, jogging (5 miles/ hour) VIGOROUSphysical activities include:
240K.Cal 180 K.Cal 255 K.Cal 220K.Cal 170 K.Cal 190 K.Cal 170 K.Cal 295 K.Cal VIGOROUSphysical activities include: For 30 minutes
Regular Physical Activity • Increases energy expenditure beyond BMR • Varies widely among individuals • More activity, more energy burned • Fat use is enhanced with regular physical activity • Lack of activity is the major cause of obesity and other health related problems • Duration and regularity are important • Make it a part of a daily routine
Regular Physical Activity • Exercise does so many great things, improves • Physical and physiological efficiencies.