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Chapter 5: Uniform Circular Motion. Chapter Goal: To learn how to solve problems about uniform circular motion. Uniform circular motion: the motion of an object traveling at a constant speed on a circular path. The speed may be constant, but the velocity is not. Uniform Circular Motion.

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## Chapter 5: Uniform Circular Motion

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**1. **Chapter 5: Uniform Circular Motion

**2. **Uniform Circular Motion

**3. **Example Problem Your roommate is working on his bicycle. The bicycle wheel has a radius of 0.3 meters. As he spins the bicycle wheel, you notice that a stone is stuck in the tread. It goes by 3 times every second.
a. What is the period of the stone?
What is the speed of the stone?
Hint: the stone makes 3 revolutions per second (rps). The period is how many seconds it takes to make one revolution.

**4. **Example Problem - Answer Your roommate is working on his bicycle. The bicycle wheel has a radius of 0.3 meters. As he spins the bicycle wheel, you notice that a stone is stuck in the tread. It goes by 3 times every second.
a. What is the period of the stone? T = 1/3 rps = .333s. Note that period, T is the reciprocal of rps.
What is the speed of the stone?
v = 2pr/T = 2p (.3m)/(.333s) = 5.7m/s

**5. **Determining the direction of acceleration for uniform circular motion using vector subtraction Draw a velocity vector on top of each even dot, tangent to the circle. Starting with 0, take each even number and do a graphical vector subtraction to find the direction of ?v and therefore . Locate the ?v vector at the odd number midway between the 2 velocity vectors.

**6. **Acceleration of Uniform Circular motion If some net force results in uniform circular motion, the resulting acceleration always points towards the center of the circle.
This is called centripetal (center-seeking) acceleration.
Is centripetal acceleration equal to ?v/ ?t? Yes, but if the magnitude of v remains constant, how do we evaluate ?v ?
Using trig, it can be shown that
ac = ?v/ ?t = v2/r.

**7. **Answer: BAnswer: B

**8. **Determining the direction of acceleration for uniform circular motion using Newtons 2nd Law SF = ma
tells us the net force vector and the acceleration vector are in the same direction (since mass is a scalar).
Take a ball with a string attached and roll it around on the table in a perfect (!) circle at constant speed. How do we draw a free body diagram of something that is constantly changing direction?
The radius becomes the x axis (actually the radial axis). This means toward the center of the circle is always considered positive.
The y axis is perpendicular to the plane of motion.

**9. **FBD of a ball on a string in uniform circular motion Draw a freebody diagram of the ball on a string in uniform circular motion.
In which direction is Fnet?
In which direction is a?
How does this change as the ball goes around the circle?

**10. **FBD of a ball on a string in uniform circular motion SFy = may = 0
(ball is not hopping up or crashing down)
SFx = max = T
Since m is a scalar, T and a must point in the same direction, toward the center of the circle.

**11. **FBD of a ball on a track in uniform circular motion Draw a freebody diagram of the ball on a track in uniform circular motion.
In which direction is Fnet?
In which direction is a?
How does this change as the ball goes around the circle?

**12. **FBD of a ball on a track in uniform circular motion SFy = may = 0
(ball is not hopping up or crashing down)
SFx = max = n2
Since m is a scalar, n2 and a must point in the same direction, toward the center of the circle.

**13. **Car turning a circular corner at constant speed Is there a net force on the car as it negotiates the turn?
Where did it come from?

**14. **Car turning a circular corner at constant speed When the driver turns the wheel the tires turn. To continue along a straight line, the car must overcome static friction and slide. If the static friction force is less than the maximum, the tire cannot slide and so has no choice but to roll in the direction of the turn.
fs-max = s |n|

**15. **Car turning a circular corner at constant speed example problem What is the maximum speed at which a 1500 kg car can make a turn around a curve of radius 50 m on a level road without sliding out of the turn (skidding)?
Recall toward the center of the circle is positive, even if it is to the left in this example

**16. **Car turning a circular corner at constant speed example problem What is the maximum speed at which a 1500 kg car can make a turn around a curve of radius 50 m on a level road without sliding out of the turn (skidding)?
1. draw a free body diagram with appropriate axes and lists knowns and finds

**17. **Car turning a circular corner at constant speed example problem Newtons 2nd Law in component form. Start with y (z) axis since there is no acceleration:
SFy = may = 0
n FG = 0, therefore n = mg

**18. **Car turning a circular corner at constant speed example problem Newtons 2nd Law in component form. Now do forces in the x (r) direction:
SFx = mac = mv2/r. The only force in the x direction is the frictional force, therefore:
fs = mv2/r
vmax occurs at fs-max. Therefore:
s |n| = mv2/r or
s mg = mv2/r

**19. **Car turning a circular corner at constant speed example problem Note the mass drops out, as all terms in the equation include mass. Solve for vmax :
v = (us rg)1/2 = 22 m/s, about 45 mph
Slow down!

**20. **Example comparing speeds Car A uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 1.1 on a particular unbanked curve. The maximum speed at which the car can negotiate this curve is 25 m/s. Car B uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 0.95 on the same curve. What is the maximum speed at which car B can negotiate the curve?

**21. **Example comparing speeds Car A uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 1.1 on a particular unbanked curve. The maximum speed at which the car can negotiate this curve is 25 m/s. Car B uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 0.95 on the same curve. What is the maximum speed at which car B can negotiate the curve?

**22. **Example comparing speeds Car A uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 1.1 on a particular unbanked curve. The maximum speed at which the car can negotiate this curve is 25 m/s. Car B uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 0.95 on the same curve. What is the maximum speed at which car B can negotiate the curve?

**23. **Example comparing speeds Car A uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 1.1 on a particular unbanked curve. The maximum speed at which the car can negotiate this curve is 25 m/s. Car B uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 0.95 on the same curve. What is the maximum speed at which car B can negotiate the curve?

**24. **Example comparing speeds Car A uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 1.1 on a particular unbanked curve. The maximum speed at which the car can negotiate this curve is 25 m/s. Car B uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 0.95 on the same curve. What is the maximum speed at which car B can negotiate the curve?

**25. **Example comparing speeds Car A uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 1.1 on a particular unbanked curve. The maximum speed at which the car can negotiate this curve is 25 m/s. Car B uses tires for which the coefficient of static friction is 0.95 on the same curve. What is the maximum speed at which car B can negotiate the curve?

**26. **Example think fuzzy dice A block is hung by a string from the inside roof of a van. When the van goes straight ahead at a speed of 28 m/s, the block hangs vertically down. But when the van maintains this same speed around an unbanked curve (radius = 150 m), the block swings toward the outside of the curve. Then the string makes an angle ? with the vertical. Find ?.

**27. **Example problem A penny is placed 15 cm from the center of a turntable. The table has period of 1.5 s. What is the mimimum coefficient of static friction so that the penny will rotate with the turntable and not slide off?

**28. **Example problem - answer A penny is placed 15 cm from the center of a turntable. The table has period of 1.5 s. What is the mimimum coefficient of static friction so that the penny will rotate with the turntable and not slide off?

**29. **EOC # 23 A ride at a carnival consists of chairs that are swung in a circle by 15.0-m cables attached to a vertical rotating pole, as shown in the drawing. The total mass of a chair and occupant is 179 kg.
a) Draw a free body diagram for this situation. Note that angle is from vertical, but the Indian Princess can cope. Oh, and what is the radius in this problem?
b) Determine the Tension in cable
c) Determine speed of chair

**30. **A ride at a carnival consists of chairs that are swung in a circle by 15.0-m cables attached to a vertical rotating pole, as shown in the drawing. The total mass of a chair and occupant is 179 kg.
SFy = 0, no acceleration in y direction.
SFx = mac where ac = mv2/r

**31. **A ride at a carnival consists of chairs that are swung in a circle by 15.0-m cables attached to a vertical rotating pole, as shown in the drawing. The total mass of a chair and occupant is 179 kg.

**32. **Friction in the back seat A woman is sitting in the middle of the back seat of the car. The car rounds a 60-m radius curve while moving at a constant speed of 20 m/s. What is the minumum coefficient of static friction between her pants and the car seat so that she doesnt slide across the seat?
Draw a fbd and write down Newtons second law in component form.

**33. **Stone in the tire tread A stone has a mass of 6.00 10-3 kg and is wedged into the tread of an automobile tire, as the drawing shows. The coefficient of static friction between the stone and each side of the tread channel is 0.90. When the tire surface is rotating at a maximum speed of 13 m/s, the stone flies out of the tread. The magnitude FN of the normal force that each side of the tread channel exerts on the stone is 1.8 N. Assume that only static friction supplies the centripetal force, and determine the radius r of the tire.

**34. **Friction in the back seat A woman is sitting in the middle of the back seat of the car. The car rounds a 60-m radius curve while moving at a constant speed of 20 m/s. What is the minimum coefficient of static friction between her pants and the car seat so that she doesnt slide across the seat?
Draw a fbd and write down Newtons second law in component form.

**35. **Friction in the back seat A woman is sitting in the middle of the back seat of the car. The car rounds a 60-m radius curve while moving at a constant speed of 20 m/s. What is the minimum coefficient of static friction between her pants and the car seat so that she doesnt slide across the seat?
Draw a fbd and write down Newtons second law in component form.

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