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Ch. 23 – Medieval World . Lesson 3 only!!. Joan of Arc.
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Ch. 23 – Medieval World Lesson 3 only!!
Joan of Arc • Joan was a devout Catholic from France. Since the age of 13 she had heard voices while praying, which she claimed came from Catholic saints. The voices told Joan that she had been chosen by God to play a role in the ongoing war between England and France, later known as the Hundred Years’ War. • Dressed in armor, Joan led French troops in victory after victory over the English. She was captured in 1430 and imprisoned by the English, who handed her over to the Church. After a trial, she was sentenced to death by burning. • In 1920, the Catholic Church made Joan of Arc a saint.
Lesson 3: Breakdown of Medieval Society - Famine • Famine, warfare, and the bubonic plague led to the breakdown of medieval society. • Famine- From 1315-1317, it rained so much that crops were ruined. Cattle died of disease from the weather. This caused a great famine where many died of starvation.
Warfare • War- The conflict between England and France lasted from 1337-1453 and was known as the Hundred Years’ War. The English won key battles early in the war due to the powerful weapon, the longbow. Soon, both sides were using more powerful weapons such as guns and cannons. Joan of Arc turned the fortunes of France during the war. In 1453, England was finally defeated by the French.
The Black Death • In 1347, Europe was struck by a terrible epidemic—the bubonic plague, a deadly infection which may have been carried by infected fleas that lived on rats. It became known as the Black Death. The epidemic started in Central Asia and spread quickly along trade networks that linked China, India, and the Middle East. Before reaching Europe, the Black Death had killed millions in Asia.
Economic Changes from the Black Death • With few people to work the land, farmland went back to being overgrown pasture. • Manor lords were desperate for workers and the surviving serfs demanded wages for their work. Many serfs left manors to work where the wages were highest. • Manor lords tried to stop this by keeping them on their manors and freezing their wages to pre-plague levels. • Soon peasants and townspeople revolted. In 1381, English peasants started the Peasants’ Revolt, killing lords and burning manors. Although the revolts were crushed, feudalism never recovered.
Effects of the Black Death on the Church • England lost 40% of its clergy • The Church was forced to hire uneducated men for the clergy • These effects soon encouraged a movement to reform Church practices
Toward a New World • Before the events of the famine, warfare, and plague, everyone’s place in society was fixed at birth. After the Black Death, Western Europe was less tied to a stable social and spiritual community. • Serfs began criticizing lords and medieval traditions. • The Black Death led to the end of the Middle Ages and the arrival of the modern world.