Ending Segregation Responding to Apartheid in South Africa
Apartheid Policy • apartheid (from the Afrikaans word for "apartness") • Population Registration Act of 1950, which put all South Africans into three racial categories: • Bantu (black African), • White • Coloured (of mixed race). • A fourth category, Asian (Indians and Pakistanis), was added later.
Apartheid Policy Group Areas Act of 1950 assigned races to different residential and business sections in urban areas. The Land Acts of 1954 and 1955 restricted non-white residence to specific areas. Restricted the rights of Blacks to own land, prohibited social contact between the races, separated public facilities. Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970 made every black South African a citizen of one of the homelands, effectively excluding blacks from South African politics
Responses to Apartheid A number of black political groups, often supported by sympathetic whites, opposed apartheid using a variety of tactics (including violence, strikes, demonstrations, and sabotage) They were dealt with severely by the government
Responses to Apartheid Apartheid was denounced by the international community. In 1961 South Africa was forced to withdraw from the British Commonwealth by member states who were critical of the apartheid system. In 1985 the governments of the United States and Great Britain imposed selective economic sanctions on South Africa in protest of its racial policy.
Responses to Apartheid How does the international community’s response to Apartheid in South Africa compare to the international community’s response to the conflict in Rwanda?
1990s & Reform In the 1990s the government (white) began to move away from Apartheid policy. Black congress was allowed. Black political prisoners were freed.
Nelson Mandela Politically active from a young age in political protest and armed protest (guerrilla war) He later admitted that the armed protest was not a good approach, and violated human rights.
Nelson Mandela Imprisoned for 18 years as a result of his activities. He was released in 1990 when the government released Black political prisoners.
President • In 1994, South Africa held its first multi-racial election. • Mandela’s party wins as South Africa’s first Black President. • Important revisions: • The introduction of free health care (1994) for all children under the age of six together with pregnant and breastfeeding women. • The Reconstruction and Development Programme - to address the immense socioeconomic problems brought about by the struggle against the Apartheid regime. Specifically it works to alleviate poverty and address the massive shortfalls in social services across the country. • Education, welfare, unions etc...
Desmond Tutu South African Bishop of Cape Town. He opposed Apartheid in the 1980s. Fought constitutional changes.
Desmond Tutu Headed the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Addresses issues of reconciling populations. Addresses issues of human rights violations during Apartheid.