Download
Download Presentation
How to determine whether solar energy is right for your site

# How to determine whether solar energy is right for your site

Télécharger la présentation

## How to determine whether solar energy is right for your site

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
##### Presentation Transcript

1. How to determine whether solar energy is right for your site EE80S: Sustainability Engineering and Practice Fall 2007

2. PV System Components Nuclear fusion generates photons PV generates electrical current from solar radiation Controls charging of batteries Converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) Energy storage

3. Insolation Zone Map

4. Calculating Electricity Bill Savings for a Net-Metered PV System • Determine the system's size in kilowatts (kW). A reasonable range is from1 to 5 kW. This value is the “kW of PV” input for the equations below. • • Based on your geographic location, select the energy production factor • from the map below for the “kWh/kW-year” input for the equations. • Energy from the PV system = (kW of PV) x (kWh/kW-year) = kWh/year • Divide this number by 12 if you want to determine your monthly energy reduction. • Energy bills savings = (kWh/year) x (Residential Rate)/ • 100 = \$/year saved • (Residential Rate in this above equation should be in dollars per kWh; for example, a rate of 10 cents per kWh is input as \$0.10/kWh.) • For example, a 2-kW system in Denver, CO, at a residential energy rate of • \$0.07/kWh will save about \$266 per year: 1,900 kWh/kW-year x \$0.07/kWhx 2 kW = \$266/year.

5. Energy Production Factor

6. Required Area for PV’s

7. Roof Mounting Systems

8. Ground Mounting Systems

9. Photovoltaic Cell

10. Tilt Angle • To capture the maximum amount of solar radiation over a year, the solar array should be tilted at an angle approximately equal to a site's latitude, and facing within 15º of due south. (Santa Cruz 36.974 North Latitude) • To optimize winter performance, the solar array can be tilted 15º more than the latitude angle, and to optimize summer performance, 15º less than the latitude angle. • At any given instant, the array will output maximum available power when pointed directly at the sun.

11. System Configurations

12. Grid Connected PV System

13. On-Grid

14. Off-Grid Keewaydin Island, Gulf of Mexico

15. Power Requirements

16. System Overview System type: Off-grid battery-based PV system Location: Keewaydin Island, Florida Solar resource: 5.5 average daily peak sun hours Production: 400 AC KWH average per month Photovoltaics Modules: 12 RWE Schott, ASE 300-DGF/17, 300 W STC, 17.0 Vmp, 12 VDC nominal Array: Six, two-module series strings, 3,600 W STC total, 34 Vmp, 24 VDC nominal Array combiner box: Two OutBack PSPV, 30 A breakers Array disconnects: 60 A breakers in DC250 and PSDC-175 enclosures Array installation: Custom aluminum rails, SSW orientation, 30-degree tilt Energy Storage Batteries: Four HuP Solar-One, SO-6-85-25, 12 VDC nominal, 1,270 AH at 20-hour rate, flooded lead-acid Battery pack: 24 VDC nominal, 2,540 AH total, 48.8 KWH total at 80% DOD Battery/inverter disconnects: Xantrex DC250, two 250 A breakers; OutBack PSDC-175, two 175 A breakers and one 250 A breaker Balance of System Charge controllers: Three Xantrex C40s, 40 A, PWM Inverters: Two Xantrex SW4024, 4,000 W each, 8,000 W total, 24 VDC nominal input, series stacked for 120/240 VAC output; one Trace SW4024, 4,000 W, 24 VDC nominal input, and two OutBack FX2024, 2,000 W each, 8,000 W total, 24 VDC nominal input, series stacked for 120/240 VAC output Engine generator: Onan GGDB 20 KW watercooled, propane-fired, remote electric start, 240 VAC output; average yearly run time is 200 to 300 hours System performance metering: Xantrex TM500A AH Meter, OutBack MATE, PC with RightHand Engineering software Technical Specifications

17. Kyocera Solar Modules

18. Batteries Four large, industrial quality, deep-cycle batteries provide energy storage for the island home.

19. Batteries • Flooded Lead Acid • Absorbed Glass Mat Sealed Lead Acid (AGM) • Gelled Electrolyte Sealed Lead Acid

20. Batteries

21. System Cost

22. Cost of Iraq War \$460,491,648,532 10-16-07 7% of the number of homes in the US (2006)

23. Boulder Creek Site

24. Mercey Hot Springs • Mercey’s electrical system is comprised of: • 1 kW (kilowatt) solar array • 3 kW wind powered generator • 15 kW diesel generator (waste vegetable oil) • (2) - 5 kW Inverters • 1,350 amp hours of battery storage

25. http://www.gridalternatives.org/