Adverbs of manner(how?) • Adverbs of place(where?) • Adverbs of time(when?) • Adverbs of frequency(how often?)
Compare 1) It is a fast car. He drives fast. 2) This is a hard exercise He works hard.
How to identify an adverb 1. One-word adverbs ending in “ly” • Many adverbs, particularly those of manner, are formed from adjectives by the addition of –ly: • e.g. patient – patiently • Some adverbs of frequency are also formed in this way: • e. g usual – usually
2. One-word adverbs not ending in “ly” • Many adverbs cannot be identified by their endings. These include adverbs which have the same form as the adjectives • e.g.fast- fast; hard- hard; wrong- wrong • there(adv. of place),then(adv. of time),often(adv. of frequency)
Position of adverbs in the sentence • ADVERBS OF MANNER- these answer the question how? • ! This adverb usually comes after the direct object or if there is no direct object, after the verb: • -She speaks Italian beautifully.-He works well.-You must drive your car carefully.-Eat quietly.
ADVERBS OF PLACE- these answer the question where? • ! This adverb usually comes after the object, otherwise after the verb: • -We saw you there.-We were sitting here.-We looked everywhere. • ! Note: somewhere, anywhere, follow the same rules as some and any: • -Have you seen my glasses anywhere?-I'm sure I left them somewhere.-I can't find them anywhere.
ADVERBS OF TIME - these answer the question when? • ! This adverb usually comes either at the very beginning of the sentence or at the end. • -Afterwards we decided to go by car. I've done that journey before. • ! Note: yet and still: yet should be placed at the end of the sentence. Still should be placed before the verb, except with the verb 'to be' when it comes after. • -We haven't started yet.-He still wears old-fashioned clothes.-She is still a student. • -Compare these two sentences: • -The train still hasn't arrived.-The train hasn't arrived yet.
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY - these answer the question how many times? • ! This adverb comes after the verb 'to be': • -She is always honest. • ! Comes before simple tenses of all other verbs: • -They sometimes spend the whole of Saturday fishing. • ! Comes after the first auxiliary in a tense consisting of more than one verb: • -I have often wondered how they did that.! Note: with 'used to' and 'have' the frequency adverb is usually placed in front: • -We always used to look forward to the school holidays.-He never has any trouble with his old car.
Some adverbs can have two forms with or without ly with a difference in meaning • Hardgreu make a lot of effort He works hard • Hardly de-abia almost none He hardly had any money left • Freegratis without paying The icecream is free • Freelyliber without restrictionsYou can go in Europe freely • Highinalt/sus distanta a long way upThe balloon is high in the sky • Highlyinalt/bun opiniehave a good opinioThey think highly about you • Clearsta departe de keep away Stand clear of drugs • Clearlyclarso wecan understand Speak clearly • Latetarziu It’s late, we should go home • Latelyrecent recently I haven’t seen you lately
Find the adverbs in the following text and underline them. • Last Saturday Ben went shopping with Grandma Scott. They took the car to the shopping centre. There was a lot of • traffic on the road. That’s why his grandma had to drive slowly. • “Have you got the shopping list, Ben?” Grandma Scott wanted to know. • “No, I haven’t.” Ben answered quickly. • “But I told you to take it,” Mrs Scott said angrily. • “Sorry Granny, but I forgot all about it,” Ben said. • “Well, then you have to write a list now.” • “Now? ” Ben asked worriedly, “but you know that I can’t read or write in the car. It always makes me feel sick”. • “Oh Ben, you’re terrible,” his grandmother said, “then I have to write the list. Where’s my handbag?” “I can’t see it anywhere, Grandma.” Ben answered helpfully. “Oh no, I left it on the kitchen table”, said Mrs Scott nervously. • “What are we going to do about it?” “I know,” Ben suggested happily. “We drive back and fetch your handbag and the shopping list.” “Good idea”, his grandma said. She turned right at the next traffic lights and returned home to Ashton ...