Unit 1: Exploration through French and Indian War 1000 A.D.-1754
PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA • HOW DID HUMANS FIRST GET TO THE AMERICAS? Early nomadic peoples
MULTIPLE CHOICE!How did people first get to the American continent? A. They sailed across the Pacific and landed in present day Chile, about 17,000 years ago. (If you believe THIS, move to the front right corner of the room!) B. They crossed the Atlantic, from present-day Iceland, about 4,000 years ago. (If you believe THIS, move to the front left corner of the room!) C. They crossed a “land bridge” during the Ice Age from present-day Russia to Canada, about 12,000 years ago. (If you believe THIS, move to the back right corner of the room!) D. All of the above (If you believe THIS, move to the back left corner of the room!)
CLOVIS MODEL: HUMANS FIRST MIGRATED ACROSS “LAND BRIDGE” FROM ASIA, 10-12,000 YEARS AGO • OVER NEXT 500 YEARS, HUMANS MIGRATED SOUTH • THEORY NAMED AFTER ARCH. SITE AT CLOVIS, N.M.--STONE SPEAR POINTS FOUND MID-1930’S
North America’s “Native America”—A Brief Peek • Adena-Hopewell-Cahokia cultures: “moundbuilders” (1ooo BC-200 BC) • ADENA/CAHOKIA: central Ohio Valley, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania • Sedentary, agricultural; pottery, art • Trading network with other tribes, from Great Lakes to Gulf Coast • Notable for their influence, especially on HOPEWELL culture that followed (100 BC-500 AD); essentially similar to Adena, but wider trading network (all the way to the Rockies!) Hopewell Mound, Ohio; mounds served as temples Cahokia woman grinding food (the Keller Figurine): This five-inch-tall figurine, carved from bauxite stone around 1200, depicts a woman preparing food, probably corn.
Southwestern America: Anasazi Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon
But what about SOUTH America? • Good soil=agricultural growth=sedentary population=large pop. growth=empires • Inca (Peru), Aztec (Mexico) Ruins of Tenochtitlan, Mexico City Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan Avenue of the Dead, Teotihuacan
The Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan The Great Temple of Tenochtitlan
Golden Ticket!! WHY WAS EUROPE THE FIRST CONTINENT TO ESTABLISH CONTACT WITH THE AMERICAS?
MULTIPLE CHOICE!WHY WAS EUROPE THE FIRST CONTINENT TO ESTABLISH CONTACT WITH THE AMERICAS? A. Europe had a higher number of geniuses and inventors, all at the right place and the right time. (If you believe THIS, move to the front right corner of the room!) B. Disease ravaged other continents, while Europe emerged from the Middle Ages more or less intact. (If you believe THIS, move to the front left corner of the room!) C. Europe developed powerful nation-states that allowed for global exploration. (If you believe THIS, move to the back right corner of the room!) D. All of the above (If you believe THIS, move to the back left corner of the room!)
THINGS ARE MISERABLE…BUT CHANGE IS ON THE WAY! Feudal culture; lands tied to wealth • peasant revolts • plague • commercial ties to eastern markets (Arab, China) Bring Out Your Dead!
Golden Ticket!! • What is… • A NATION?
POLITICAL CHANGE--GROWTH OF NATION-STATES • ORGANIZED, ABLE TO EXPLORE, RAISE $ • NOBLES CRUSHED/FORCED INTO LINE • FORM BUREAUCRACIES, TAX SYSTEMS • MONARCHS ALLY WITH MERCHANTS FOR LOANS, FINANCE • NATION-STATES PROVIDE FRAMEWORK FOR EXPLORATION • CULTURAL CHANGE • RENAISSANCE (LATE 1400’S-EARLY 1500’S) • NEW INVENTIONS SPREAD LEARNING, EDUCATION • INVESTMENT OF WEALTH INTO BUILDING, ART, EXPLORATION, SCIENCE, REVIVAL OF CLASSICS (GREEK, LATIN) • PRINTING PRESS (JOHANN GUTENBERG, 1456) • GROWTH IN ASTRONOMY, CARTOGRAPHY The Renaissance…A Time of Great, Uhh…Art
TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE • BETTER SHIPS: CARAVELS • TRIANGULAR FORESAILS • NEW METHODS OF NAVIGATION (ASTROLABE, SEXTANT) • IMPROVED WEAPONRY: MUSKETS, CANNONS, ARMOR (STEEL) • RELIGIOUS CHANGE • REFORMATION (1517-1563) • SO WHAT? • CREATES RELIGIOUS DIVISION, BACKLASH, SPLINTER GROUPS (EX., PURITANS) Martin Luther: Very Angry German Person 95 Theses: Marty’s List of Things That Upset Him
AGRICULTURAL CHANGE • BETTER CROPS, BETTER WEATHER, LESS PLAGUES • TIES TO FOREIGN MARKETS CREATES NEED FOR PRODUCTION (IN ENGLAND, WOOL/CLOTH) • NEED FOR PRODUCTION CREATES NEED FOR LAND, WHICH CREATES ENCLOSURE LAWS • ENCLOSURE LAWS CREATE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE TO CITIES=SEDENTARY POPULATIONS=??
So NOW…Europe Has: NATION-STATES THAT CAN SUPPORT EXPLORATION (POLITICAL CHANGE) RENAISSANCE-ERA DESIRE FOR NEW KNOWLEDGE/WEALTH, USE OF OLD KNOWLEDGE (CULTURAL CHANGE) A DESPERATE NEED FOR COMMERCE/PRODUCTION AND NEW URBAN POPULATION READY TO MOVE (AGRICULTURAL CHANGE) STEEL, NEW METHODS OF NAVIGATION, BETTER SHIPS (TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE) NEW GROUPS OF RELIGIOUS “EXTREMISTS,” READY TO MOVE, TOO And now they’re ready for the … DISCOVERY
Golden Ticket!! WHO SAW THE NEW WORLD FIRST? ?
MULTIPLE CHOICE!Who landed in the New World first (not counting the people who were already here)? A. Irish monks, sailing in a curragh (a fur-lined boat), crossed the Atlantic around 800 A.D. (If you believe THIS, move to the front right corner of the room!) B. Chinese ships reached the California-Mexico coast around 1240 A.D. (If you believe THIS, move to the front left corner of the room!) C. Spanish and Italian explorers reached the Caribbean and South America in the 15th century. (If you believe THIS, move to the back right corner of the room!) D. None of the above (If you believe THIS, move to the back left corner of the room!)
NONE OF THE ABOVE!!! VIKINGS, AT L'ANSE AUX MEADOWS (VINLAND), NEWFOUNDLAND, ABOUT 1000 A.D. a. FIRST EUROPEAN TO SIGHT N.AMERICA: BJARNI HERJOLFSSON, ABOUT 985-986 A.D. L'Anse aux Meadows artifacts: Whorl and butternut
VINLAND, at L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, “The ROCK”-- LONG MAY YOUR BIG JIB DRAW!!
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS LANDS AT SAN SALVADOR (?) OCT. 1492 1. SEARCHING FOR ALTERNATE ROUTE TO ASIA (PROBABLY)
MULTIPLE CHOICE!Why is America called “America?” A. After Leif Ericsson, who led the early Viking expeditions (amteric, “Land of Eric”) (If you believe THIS, move to the front right corner of the room!) B. After Richard Ameryke, a supporter of early English explorer John Cabot, who discovered Nova Scotia in 1497. (If you believe THIS, move to the front left corner of the room!) C. After Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who sailed the coast of Brazil in 1497. (If you believe THIS, move to the back right corner of the room!) D. None of the above (If you believe THIS, move to the back left corner of the room!)
Waldseemüller Map, 1507, Orbis Typus Universalis, Nuremburg 1507-1513 Waldseemüller Map, 1507, Nuremburg 1507-1513 In 1507 Martin Waldseemüller, a German mapmaker, was the first person to designate the newly discovered southern continent as "America." He named the continent after Amerigo Vespucci, who lied about beating Columbus to the New World in 1497.
Ralph Waldo Emerson on Vespucci: • “Americo Vespucci, the pickle dealer at Seville who…managed in this lying world to suppress Columbus and baptize half the world with his own dishonest name. • Samuel Eliot Morrison: • “So here’s to you, Amerigo. Liar though you were, you made three long transatlantic voyages, wrote entertainingly about them, and played your cards so cleverly as to be elected to the exclusive club of the immortals. Without you, the history of American discovery would be infinitely poorer.” Fibby McLiarFace Himself
HERNAN CORTES AND THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO: THE LUCKIEST MAN ON EARTH, 1519
V. Colonies A. Spain’s empire too big to maintain… So, England takes the lead B. 1st colony: Roanoke (“The Lost Colony”), 1587
This is ALSO what you get when you search for Roanoke Island…courtesy of Mr. Coney’s 5th grade class, Room 34 at Tovashal Elementary School, Murrieta, CA
Pocahontas? Oh, John Smith…Mr. Hunky Colonial Guy…
MULTIPLE CHOICE!Why did the Jamestown colony survive, when other colonies did not? A. A strong Indian alliance protected them from attack by other hostile tribes. (If you believe THIS, move to the front right corner of the room!) B. The arrival of a strong support fleet and additional colonists, after the hard winter of 1619-1620. (If you believe THIS, move to the front left corner of the room!) C. The emergence of profitable crops made the colony worth supporting. (If you believe THIS, move to the back right corner of the room!) D. None of the above (If you believe THIS, move to the back left corner of the room!)
1. Tobacco…the reason Jamestown survived Ah, the fresh taste of cancer…
The FIRST Thanksgiving, Florida!Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Sept. 8, 1565 • ON THE MENU: • "cocido" (a rich Spanish stew made with pork, garbanzo beans and onions) • Lima beans • Salt pork/ham • shellfish • gopher tortoise • Shark • Mullet • sea catfish • maize (corn) • Beans • Squash • nuts and fruit
The Colonies…A bit at a time • New England • Massachusetts 1620 • Connecticut 1635 • Rhode Island 1636 (WE’RE NOT MASSACHUSETTS) • Middle • Virginia 1607 • New York 1624 (Whaddya lookin’ at?) • Delaware 1638 (YAWN) • Pennsylvania 1682 • Southern • Maryland 1632 • Carolinas (Restoration colonies 1670) • Georgia (1733—losers)