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CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation. Section 1: The American Values System Section 2: Social Control Section 3: Social Change. Section 1: The American Values System. Objectives:. Identify the basic values that form the foundation of American culture.
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CHAPTER 3Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Section 1: The American Values System Section 2: Social Control Section 3: Social Change
Section 1: The American Values System Objectives: • Identify the basic values that form the foundation of American culture. • Describe new values that have developed in the United States since the 1970s.
Section 1: The American Values System (Eight) Basic Values of American Culture • Personal Achievement – built primarily by people that value individual achievement, as in the area of employment • Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative • Work – Americans view discipline, dedication, and hard work as signs of virtue
Section 1: The American Values System Basic Values of American Culture (continued) • Morality and Humanitarianism – Americans place a high value on morality and tend to view the world in terms of right and wrong; quick to help the unfortunate • EfficiencyandPracticality – practical and inventive, every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done
Section 1: The American Values System Basic Values of American Culture (continued) • ProgressandMaterialComfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve • EqualityandDemocracy – to have human equality, there must be an equality of opportunity; success is a reward that must be earned
Section 1: The American Values System Basic Values of American Culture (continued) • Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference
Section 1: The American Values System Our Changing Values • Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness • Environmental protection • Education and Religion were deemed important by students who were polled
Section 2: Social Control Objectives: • Identify how the norms of society are enforced. • Describe the differences between positive and negative sanctions and between formal and informal sanctions.
Section 2: Social Control Enforcing the Norms of Society • Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations • Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms
Section 2: Social Control Different Types of Sanctions • Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise • Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death
Section 2: Social Control Different Types of Sanctions (continued) • Formal Sanction – rewards or punishments by a formal organization or regulatory agency such as the government and includes promotions, awards, or low grades • Informal Sanction – spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group such as a standing ovation, gifts, gossip, or ridicule
Section 3: Social Change Objectives: • Identify and describe the main sources of social change. • Describe the factors that lead people to resist social change.
Social Change Source of Social Change SocialConsequence Example Women vote helped political decisions (social) values and beliefs Right to Vote IPOD Factory Child Labor Pollution technology Increase in Cultural Traits and values. Decrease in open land population Increase Population Instant communications, TV, Radio, and Satellite diffusion Spread of Cultural Traits physical environment Floods, Drought, Fire Ruined homes and landscape Loss of lives, Depression, and possibly War wars and conquests September (9/11/01)
Section 3: Social Change Main Sources of Social Change • Values and Beliefs – are affected by ideology spread through social movements • Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment • Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture • Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another
Section 3: Social Change Main Sources of Social Change (continued) • Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change • Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time
Section 3: Social Change Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change • Ethnocentrism – can lead to segregation • Cultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computers • Vested Interests – might lead to a focus on maintaining budgets over a focus on providing a quality education and instruction