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Water Scarcity in Africa

Water Scarcity in Africa

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Water Scarcity in Africa

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  1. A Study of Water Resources in Zimbabwe Water Scarcity in Africa Catherine Schoeninger and Danielle Yunker http://www.bobjanet.demon.co.uk/urchin/4life/zimm.jpg

  2. Welcome to Africa • Current Conditions • Decline in water resources • Insufficient food • Sanitation issues • Extreme, unpredictable weather • 300 million people affected • What are the effects of water scarcity in Africa? http://www.pewfellowships.org/resources/stories/zimbabwe_images/main_zimbabwe.jpg

  3. Zimbabwe • Natural Adversity • Population density • Climatic conditions • Landlocked geographic location • All lead to water supply problems http://www.unido-aaitpc.org/unido-aaitpc/new1/images/map_zimbabwe.gif

  4. High Population Density • Overcrowding adds to strain on resources • Housing • Multiple families in close proximity • No running water • Communal Well • Women and children fetch water • Communal Facilities • Designed for 8 people, now shared by over 50 people http://www.ministrytozimbabwe.com/woman%20carring%20water.jpg

  5. Sanitation Issues • Stem from overpopulation and inefficient infrastructure • Toilet • Same drain as shower • Blockages from use of newspaper as toilet paper • Pipe system • Bursts • Slow repair time • Contaminated water • Sakubva River • Children’s infected play area http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0301.html

  6. Health Risks • Observed at Zimbabwean Health Clinics • Daily patient increase • Stem from contact with contaminated water • Specific diseases include: • Tuberculosis • Cholera http://www.open2.net/theservice/new_nurses/images/nurse_pt.jpg http://web.mit.edu/basch/www/images/red-cross.gif

  7. Climate Conditions • 3 distinct seasons • Ranging from hot to cool and wet to dry • Unpredictable floods and droughts • Annual Average rainfall is 685 mm • 300-500 mm can come in one month • Difficult to plan crop cycle http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0110.html

  8. Agriculture • Agricultural nation • Inconsistent harvests • Leads to malnourishment • Struggle for financial stability http://www.peopleandplanet.net/files/Zimbabwe%20farmers_Emmanuel%20KoroPYyJQD.jpg http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0125.html http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0213.html

  9. Possible Solutions • Improved Infrastructure • Solar Stills • Conservation efforts • Spreading awareness http://www.villagehealth.org/Dsc00404.jpg

  10. Infrastructure • International • Necessary because they are landlocked • Expand current system • National • Improve and increase existing system • Drawbacks • Need international cooperation • Leakage • Expensive – small countries can’t afford http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/leak/photo10b.jpg

  11. Solar Stills • Effective way to desalinize and purify water • Produces clean drinking water http://www.geda.org.in/solar/so_slr_still.htm http://www.i4at.org/surv/sstill.htm

  12. Water Cycle • Operates on water cycle properties http://www.i4at.org/surv/sstill.htm

  13. Analysis of Solar Stills Easy procedure Cost effective Dependent on abundant sunshine ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES http://www.borderpact.org/Grants%20Awardees%201999/Region%203/Images/stills1.jpg

  14. Conservation • Efforts • Improved management • Refined infrastructure • Dependent on financial means http://www.capecairo.com/botswana/CCbotszim/mekoro.jpg

  15. Spreading Awareness • Advertising water conservation • Simple • Inexpensive http://us.news2.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/afp/20060406/capt.sge.gum86.060406222759.photo00.photo.default-380x252.jpg

  16. Questions??? http://epederstad.k-nettet.com/main/graphics/uploaded/1660/thumb_zimbabwe%20m.jpg

  17. References • “AFRICA: Water management essential to break poverty”. OxResearch. Oxford. 17 March 2003. ProQuest Database. 15 February 2006. • Anonymous. “Africa with no rain, or too much”. The Economist. London. 13 December 1997. Volume 345, Issue 8047;  page 39. ProQuest Database. 15 February 2006. • Mansell, M.G., and Hussey, S.W. 2005. “An investigation of flows and losses within the alluvial sands of ephemeral rivers in Zimbabwe”. 314 (1-4): 192-203. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006. • Manzungu, E., and Machiridza R. 2005. “An analysis of water consumption and prospects for implementing water demand management at household level in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe”. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 30 (11-16): 925-934. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006. • Mukheli, A., Mosupye, G., and Swatuk, LA. “Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe”? Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 27 (11-22): 723-732. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006. • Rijsberman, F.R. “Water scarcity: fact or fiction?”. 80 (1-3): 5-22. 2006. Web of Knowledge Database. 17 February 2006. • “Solar Stills”. Gujarat Energy Development Agency. 2003. 21 March 2006. http://www.geda.org.in/solar/so_slr_still.htm