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Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

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Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

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  1. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages • Trust vs. mistrust • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt • Initiative vs. guilt • Competence (industry) vs. inferiority • Identity vs. role confusion • Intimacy vs. isolation • Generativity vs. stagnation • (Ego) Integrity vs. despair

  2. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) • Object permanence • Stranger anxiety • Separation anxiety

  3. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) • Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years) • Use of symbols • Pretend play • Language development • Egocentrism

  4. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) • Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years) • Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11 years) • Conservation • Reversibility • Seriation • Classification

  5. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) • Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years) • Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11 years) • Formal Operational stage (12 years – adulthood) • Abstract logic • Potential for mature moral reasoning

  6. Freud’s Psychoanalytic TheoryThree Components of Personality • Id • Eros – libido, Thanatos, Pleasure principle • Ego • Reality principle • Superego • Conscience, Ego-ideal

  7. Defense Mechanisms • Ego produces defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety.

  8. Defense Mechanisms • Repression • Regression • Reaction formation • Displacement • Projection • Denial

  9. Psychosexual Stages • Oral • Anal • Phallic • Latency • Genital

  10. Information Processing Theory • Children and adults gradually gain processing efficiency when they improve in perception, memory, attention, and problem-solving skills.

  11. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Social interaction with more knowledgeable members of society help children acquire ways of thinking and behaving according to the culture.

  12. Evolutionary Theory • Organisms adapt in order to survive and produce offspring. Developmental phenomena have adaptive value.

  13. Classical Conditioning Learning by association • Unconditioned stimulus • Unconditioned response

  14. Classical Conditioning Learning by association • Unconditioned stimulus • Unconditioned response • Neutral stimulus

  15. Classical Conditioning Learning by association • Unconditioned stimulus • Unconditioned response • Neutral stimulus • Conditioned stimulus • Conditioned response

  16. Operant Conditioning Learning by consequences • Reinforcer – increases behavior • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement

  17. Operant Conditioning Learning by consequences • Reinforcer – increases behavior • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment – decreases behavior

  18. Learning by observing others Albert Bandura Bobo doll study Vicarious conditioning Observational Learning