PHOTOGRAPHY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
CAMERA Types and Characteristics (Jenis-jenis dan Ciri-ciri)
Categories of Camera Light Catcher Sensor Medium (Medium Penangkap Cahaya)
CELLULOID FILM • Using celluloid film as a Light Catcher Medium and also Storage Medium • Type of Film depending on measurement a. Small format (35mm) b. Medium format (100-120mm) c. Large format • Format 35mm most popular (a.k.a. Film 135) Analogue Camera(Film)Kamera Analog (Filem)
THE PRINT (PHOTO PAPER) Darkrooms: Creating Images with Chemistry • Films that have been exposed go through a process called “developing”. • Developing film-dropping off rolls of 35mm film, and getting back prints and negatives. Analogue Camera(Film)Kamera Analog (Filem)
Generates a developed film image (a.k.a.self-developing film)by Polaroid Corporation. • American scientist Edwin Land, who unveiled the first commercial instant camera, the Land Camera, in 1948, Camera and portable darkroom in a single compartment, Invented in 1923 by Samuel Shlafrock. • Using Zink Photo Paper as a Light Catcher Medium and also Storage Medium. It is cheap and suitable those who like to collect picture. Instant Camera (Polaroid)
Using Image-sensor atau Picture Sensor as a Light Catcher Medium and Memory Card also Storage Medium CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE (CCD) or COMPLEMENTARY METAL OXIDE SILICON (CMOS) Digital Camera (Memory Card)Kamera Digital (Filem)
Pixels = Picture elements • Resolution: number of pixels captured by the image sensor. Pixels Higher Resolution Image 300 ppi Lower Resolution Image 72 ppi
SLR/DSLR • Viewfinder/Rangefinder Camera • Lomo Camera • Mirrorless Camera • Twin Lens Reflex Camera • Digital Compact Camera • View Camera Types of CameraJenis-jenis Kamera Utama
DSLR/SLR CAMERASingle-lens Reflex Camera - Profesional Type Camera (Kamera Pantulan Lensa Tunggal)
Profesional • Designed for professionals and advanced amateurs. • Often based on a SLR design & feature resolutions between 8 and 12 million pixels (or more). • One huge advantage ‐ most of the features (such as exposure controls) and accessories (such as lenses) designed for the film versions also work with the digital versions • SLR –Single Lens Reflect • Light directed through a hinged mirror/viewfinder (pembidik) • DSLR – Digital SLR • Interchangeable lenses • Greater depth of field • Accurate composition • Better image quality • lens + CCD or CMOS (Light Sensor) DSLR/SLR CAMERASingle-lens Reflex Camera (Kamera Pantulan Lensa Tunggal)
A cross-section (or 'side-view') of the optical components of a typical SLR camera shows how the light passes through the lens assembly (1), is reflected by the mirror (2) placed at a 45-degree angle, and is projected on the matte focusing screen (5). Via a condensing lens (6) and internal reflections in the roof pentaprism (7) the image appears in the eyepiece (viewfinder) (8). When an image is taken, the mirror (2) moves upwards from its resting position in the direction of the arrow, the focal plane shutter (3) opens, and the image is projected onto the film or sensor (4) in exactly the same manner as on the focusing screen. Kamera pantulan lensa tunggal yang mempunyai sebuah cermin yang memantulkan cahaya yang diperoleh daripada lensa dan melalui pentaprisma(No.7) dan imej dapat dilihat melalui viewfinder (No.8). Semasa merakam, cermin (No.2) akan terangkat dan mendedahkan sensor (No.4) dan merakam imej yang diperoleh daripada lensa. DSLR/SLR Mechanism
Universal standard or 35 mm: The sensor’s size is 24×36 mm (when is Full Frame). This is the most used by photojournalists, photographers of nature, weddings and many advanced amateurs, due to its combination of acceptable weight and price with high quality and versatility. Moreover, among the DSLRrwe have all the formats described in the section “The Sensor”, with virtually the same characteristics but with different sizes for the sensor, which enhances the final quality of the file, as the quality increases when the size is bigger.
Medium Format The sensor (or film) measures are 6×4.5 cm or up to 6×7 cm. This kind of camera is widely and mostly used in fashion and advertisement photography, and for portraits. These cameras are a little bit heavy, but their quality makes up for it, albeit their prices don’t help much to make them popular
These are called "rangefinder" cameras because they focus using a dual-image range finding device. You turn a ring, and when two superimposed images line up, you're in perfect focus. • Leica M9 is the most prestige rangefinder camera that be used by the street photographer. • Price: RM25K (Body) dan RM50K (lens 50mm f0.95) Rangefinder Camera
The photograph is taken through the main lens however the view from the lens and the viewfinder is slightly different, this difference is called parallax error.
A Lomo Camera or lens usually gives photos high contrast, twisted colors, and a noticeable vignette (a shading of the outer edges of the picture). • Kamera Lomopula merupakan kamera filem yang direka untuk memberi kesan khas seperti gambar di atas. • Kesan2 khas ini memberi impak dramatik pada gambar yang dirakam. kamera ini menggunakan filem dan perlu dicuci di kedai gambar. Lomo Camera (Kamera Lomo)
Advantages of the viewfinder camera: • Simple viewfinder cameras are cheap. • There are fewer moving parts, so less chance of equipment failure. • Higher light levels to the viewfinder. • High-quality rangefinder cameras provide excellent focusing, especially in low light. • Quieter operation than SLR cameras. Disadvantages of the viewfinder camera: • Parallax error (unless compensated for). • The viewfinder image may be quite small. Advantages and Disadvantages Viewfinder/Rangefinder
Samsung NX300 Mirrorless Camera Kamera Tanpa Cermin
Mirrorless cameras, as the name suggests, don't need a mirror. Instead, the light passes through the lens and falls right onto the image sensor, as it does in point-and-shoot and phone cameras. • To preview the image before you press the shutter button, you look at a screen on the back of the camera, or into a viewfinder with an electronic screen • Kamera jenis ini pula merupakan kamera yang tidak menggunakan cermin sebagaimana yang digunakan DSLR/SLR. jadi sensor terletak betul-betul di belakang lensa dan kaedah elektronik shutter digunakan bagi menggantikan kaedah mechanical shutter yang digunakan oleh DSLR. • Kebanyakan kamera jenis ini mempunyai sensor yang lebih kecil dan antara saiz sensor yang terkenal ialah micro 4/3. Kamera jenis ini juga membolehkan kita menukar lensa sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh DSLR. Mirrorless Camera Kamera Tanpa Cermin
SLR TLR Twin Lens Reflex Camera(Kamera Pantulan Lensa Kembar)
A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. • One of the lenses is the photographic objective or "taking lens" (the lens that takes the picture), while the other is used for the viewfinder system, which is usually viewed from above at waist level. • Kamera jenis ini pula mempunyai pantulan 2 lensa yang mana lensa pertama bertindak sebagai "viewfinder" dan lensa yang kedua bertindak sebagai perakam. • kamera jenis ini masih menggunakan filem dan ia merupakan kamera yang amat popular bagi penggemar kamera lama dan kamera filem. Twin Lens Reflex Camera
OPTICAL VIEWFINDER OLED - Organic Light-Emitting Diode LCD display or LCD viewfinder Pro-consumer or Prosumer Pocket-size/Point and Shoot/Consumer Digital Compact CameraSLR-Style CameraKamera Kompak Digital
Point and Shoot (Compact) • “consumer” digital cameras. • All‐in‐one with lens, flash, etc. • Automatic. Ready to go. User friendly. • Small, compact and lightweight • Usually don't provide you with a lot of creative control. • Professional Consumer (Prosumer) • Combination of professional and consumer cameras. • High‐quality built‐in zoom lens, high quality sensor & settings. • Interchangeable lenses. • Quality without the hassle of lugging other kit. • Kamera kompak digital ini adalah kamera yang paling ringkas, mudah digunakan serta dimiliki oleh kebanyakan orang biasa. ia mempunyai lensa yang kekal. terdapat jenis lensa yang boleh di zoom atau ada juga yang mempunyai lensa fokus tunggal (fix focal length). • Biasanya kamera jenis ini mempunyai sensor yang kecil dan kualiti gambarnya adalah rendah berbanding dengan kamera jenis DSLR atau Mirror less yang mempunyai lensa yang lebih besar. namun ia merupakan pilihan ramai orang kerana cukup untuk digunakan untuk rakaman harian dan mode auto yang mesra pengguna. Digital Compact Camera
OPTICAL BENCH OR LARGE FORMAT CAMERA This kind of cameras is used mostly for study portraits, advertising photography of big size objects (for instance, cars) and architecture photography. Its formats range from 9×12 cm to 20×25 cm, usually are very heavy, big and cumbersome, but they offer a superb quality. Apart from the obvious quality, we have seen that a big surface in the sensor we get better quality, we have to take into consideration a highly important factor: they can manipulate the perspective according to the Scheimflug Principle and the depth of field (keeping on focus the objects both behind and ahead of that focused on).
SLR Camera Specialization and Handling Pengkhususan dan Pengendalian – PnHasnah
SLR Demonstration A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence "reflex", from the mirror's reflection) that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured. The camera has a viewfinder that sees through the lens by way of a 45°-angled mirror that flips up when the shutter fires and allows the light to strike the image sensor (or film).
The Negative (35mm Film ) 135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography. It is a cartridge film with a film gauge of 35 mm, typically used for hand-held photography in 35 mm film cameras. The size of the 135 film frame has been adopted by many high-end digital single lens reflex cameras, referred to as full frame digital SLRs.
Color negative film, also called print film, is what most people are familiar with; the stuff you can still buy almost anywhere (and what non-specialists will generally assume you want if you ask for "film"). The image you see on a developed negative is orange-tinted, and the colors are inverted. The process used to develop these is called C-41, and so these are sometimes called "C-41 films". Color negatives have their colors inverted, and are orange-tinted.
Slide film, more properly called reversal film, gives a positive image; in other words, when you look through it, it looks like a photograph. Nearly all slide films today use the E-6 process, which is a completely different process to that used for negative films. Slide films, typically mounted in plastic or cardboard mounts, give a positive image that looks just like your photograph.
Traditional black-and-white films are usually negative films, but (you guessed it) they're black-and-white. These, again, use a very different process (albeit a much simpler one) to all the other types of film.There's a special subset of black-and-white films: those that can be developed in the same C-41 process used for color negatives. Ilford XP2 and Kodak BW400CN are two of them. These have all the properties of color negatives, except for the color part, so most of what is written below about the latter applies to these films as well.
ISO numbers start from 100-200 (Base ISO) and increment in value in geometric progression (power of two). So, the ISO sequence is: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400 and etc. • A low ISO (100-400) rating means the film will be less sensitive to light and therefore would be better to use in brighter conditions to prevent over exposure. • A high ISO rating (400-1600) means the film is far more sensitive to light and therefore better suited to use in lower light conditions to prevent under exposure. Summary : The "faster" the film, the more sensitive it was. The "slower" it was, the less sensitive it was.
The difference is clear – the image on the right hand side at ISO 3200 has a lot more noise in it, than the one on the left at ISO 200. Comparison