Climate Change andhow to help slow it down Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol ECE UPRM Director - CLiMMATe Lab (CLoud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Events) PI @ UPRM- for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)
Climate Change Scientific consensus: is caused mainly because of human activity, such as CO2 emissions.* * According to the report from the UN-IPCC 2007.
IPCCIntergovernamental Panel on Climate Change www.ipcc.ch
En estas gráficas se compara los modelos naturales y antropogénicos con las medidas reales.
Human Activities For example: • CO2emissions to the atmosphere: cars, electricity, water • Deforestation – construction • Contamination • other greenhouse gases like methane(22x), nitrous oxides (310x)
Consequences • Extreme weather • Storms • Floods, droughts • Cold winters, heat waves • Sea level • Impact on agriculture, species, economy, health, etc
Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 3% of the world’s greenhouse gases, yet… Its climate and ecological systems have already been altered by global warming and will undergo further damage in the years ahead. Social impacts Demonstrators in Nairobi, Kenya, protest failure of developed countries to curb emissions of greenhouse gases. www.un.org
A 2006 report by economist Sir Nicholas Stern suggests that global warming could shrink the global economy by 20%!
} Cold due to sulfuric emissions: (1940-1970) which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain Clean Air Act Global average temperatureYears: 1860-2000
Costa Rica First official lost species due to Global warming: golden toad Also corals are bleaching All over the world.
Some of its consequences are irreversible Permafrost Glaciers
Worst case scenario: Ocean conveyor belt stops Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America. [IPCC]
World Population Growth 2000 1987 1975 1960 1930 1800 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 It took all human history to reach 1 billion in 1800. billions 10,000 BC 5,000 BC Year 0 1000 2000
On top of this… New blooming economies want to live their own version of the “American Dream”. Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.
The Good News is that… we can make a difference … while saving $$$
Solution? • You just have to turn a bit GREEN!
Save $$$, and…help the planet Every time we use: • electricity • gasoline • products • water We send emissions to the atmosphere that warms it more.
Puerto Rico Dry Season Puerto Rico Wet Season In PR global warming is expected to decrease rain by 10-20%!
Water • When we save water, we save $ and CO2 emissions • Buy shower head of 1.5-2gpm
Water saving kits like this from the EcoStore can save up to 40% of water bill! In PR this is equivalent to $15-$20 per month for a typical family. Saving water…
Paper use • Print on both sides, minimize color. • Use recycle paper, 100% post-consumer • Cancel Catalogs • Subscribe to online magazines, Pay online Avoid millions of tree from being chop down
Reforestation • Plant trees • Lower your home temperature up to 10F!, • Increase value of your property! • Reduce CO2 emissions Natural Resources gives you up to 200 free trees!
Effect on the Planet… Every time we buy plastic, glass, aluminum and paper, and other products, we are indirectly emitting more greenhouse gases like CO2 to the atmosphere that warms it even more.
Be a wise consumer • Buy less! • Give away what you don’t use.
They contain many toxics, heavy metals like mercury that poison our water bodies, when it rains of the landfills. Recycle them!. Use rechargeable batteries.. Same with cell phones, and other electronics Don’t through batteries to the trash! Busca la lista de centros de acopio de baterías en http://campusverde.uprm.edu
* Rechargeable Batteries(4 AA + 4 AAA) Save $100+ for each one!
Landfills produce methane gas Mass Animal Farming produces methane gas Eat less Meat • Methane is 20x stronger than CO2 in capturing IR • Could be capture and use to generate energy.
According to a 2006 study by U. of Chicago; Eating a vegan diet prevents the equivalent of 1.5 tons of CO2 emissions every year, more than the 1 ton of CO2 emissions prevented by switching from a typical large sedan to a Toyota Prius. Effect of What we Eat to Climate Change “…raising animals for food generates more greenhouse gases than all the cars and trucks in the world combined”. 2006 U.N. report
Eat less Meat to help the Planet… So why does meat cause so much global warming? • Growing feed for farmed animals requires intense use of synthetic fertilizer, which releases N2O– a far stronger greenhouse gas than even CO2. • The tens of billions of farmed animals of the world produce massive amounts of flatulence and liquid manure, which release large amounts of methane into the atmosphere as well as forming nitrous oxide, both of which are powerful green house gases. • Heating buildings that house farm animals – emission of green house gases "Rearing Cattle Produces More Greenhouse Gases Than Driving Cars, UN Report Warns," UN News Centre, 29 Nov. 2006.
Is it Sustainable? 70-90% of all planted cereals are destined to feed animals of consumption 100 acres of land yield enough to feed • 28 meat-eating humans • 400 vegetarians
Styrofoam • Generates manytoxic gases & CO2during their production. • NOT biodegradable, are prohibited in many cities in the U.S. • Releasesstyrene, which related to cancer. • Moreexpensivethan reusable dinnerware.
Sell your “Trash”Recycle, Reuse , Reduce: • cardboard • Plastic • Aluminum cans • Glass • Batteries • Water • Cooking oil • leaves • Methane • MBytes
If we don’t recycle… • More emissions of methane, CO2 and other toxic and greenhouse gases • Which contribute to climate change. • Waste of virgin material – limited material in the planet, so not sustainable!
Recycle correctly: NO straws NO cups *Only #1 y #2
About materials… • Plastics consume energy when • fabricated • transport • Steel and aluminum emit CO2 when produced • Mass animal Farming and landfill emit methane • Paper production decreases absorption of CO2 in the atmosphere due to deforestation.
What should I buy? • Reduced packaging • Concentrated Products *All packages need large amounts of energy to be produces, and many emit tons of CO2 in the atmosphere annually. X3 x1
Compost • Recycle leaves, and other waste • It’s better for your health and the environment. • Organic food (better health, less Br)
What should I buy? • A fiberglasspoolemploys 1/3 of the energy than a concrete pool.
How? Cut each Picture, then Paste Special in JPG or GIF Format. Save Mbytes! • Saves materials & energy Great fordial-up connection! OR> Right-click on figure, press Format Figure, Compress , All, or change with Paste Special to Jpeg or gif Format. Save a lot of space on your USB memory sticks! Up to 20x!!
Increase your MPG[MPG = miles per gallon] Don’t press gas pedal too much. Learn to drive at optimum acceleration. optimum MPG smaller MPG Car Acceleration Pressure on pedal