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Drive Design Seminar

Drive Design Seminar

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Drive Design Seminar

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  1. Drive Design Seminar

  2. Product Description Materials Cost Drivers General Drive Design Additional Considerations

  3. Product Product Description • General Information • Standard Product • MTO Product

  4. V-Belt works on the principle of the wedge and relies on tension to create friction on the sidewall of the sheave to transmit power Synchronous or timing belt relies on accurate and smooth meshing of the teeth on the belt with the grooves of the sprocket Product - General Two Major Belt Categories

  5. WrappedMolded which has a fabric cover and is molded into a V shape Raw Edge which is cured and then cut into a V shape Product - General Two Major Types of V-Belts

  6. Product - General Industry Standards Standards are determined by the following manufacturing associations: • RMA – Rubber Manufacturers Association • MPTA – Mechanical Power Transmission Association • ISO – International Standard Organization • SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers • API – American Petroleum Institute • ASAE – American Society of Agricultural Engineers • Government Standards

  7. Product - Standard Standard Belts • Classical (Multiple) • Single (FHP) • Narrow (Wedge) • Double-V (Hexagonal) • Joined (Banded) • V-Ribbed • Variable Speed • Synchronous (Timing)

  8. Angle TW TW Th Th Product - Standard Classical V-BeltsReference ASAE S211.5 & RMA Standard IP-20 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) • Belt Reference Nomenclature • Part Number: A63 • Belt Type: A • Outside Length (O.L.): 65.3” • Part Number + 2.3”= Belt O.L. Note(s): Typical cross section designation for Aggie/LG Belts adds ‘H’ prefix. For example: HA, HB, etc. For metric designations, refer to appropriate Industry Standard. Wrapped Molded (A, B, C, & D Sections) Raw Edge – Cog (AX, BX, CX & DX Sections) Angle

  9. Angle TW Th Product - Standard Single (FHP) V-BeltsReference RMA Standard IP-23 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: 4L500 Belt Type: 4L Outside Length (O.L.): 50.0 Part Number= Belt O.L. Note(s): For metric designations, refer to appropriate Industry Standard. Raw Edge Laminated Wrapped Molded

  10. Product - Standard Narrow V-BeltsReference ASAE S211.5 & RMA Standard IP-22 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: 5V630 Belt Type: 5V Outside Length (O.L.): 63.0” Part Number = Belt O.L. Note(s): Typical cross section designation for Aggie/LG Belts adds an ‘H’ prefix. For example: H3V, H5V, etc. For metric designations, refer to appropriate Industry Standard. Wrapped Molded (3V, 5V, & 8V Sections) Raw Edge Cog (3VX & 5VX)

  11. Product - Standard Double-V (Hexagonal) V-BeltsReference ASAE S211.5 & RMA Standard IP-21 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: AA60 Belt Type: AA Outside Length (O.L.): 63.4 Part Number = Belt O.L. Note(s): Typical cross section designation for Aggie/LG Belts adds ‘H’ prefix. For example: HAA, HBB, etc. For metric designations, refer to appropriate Industry Standard. Cross Sections (AA, BB, & CC Sections)

  12. Product - Standard Joined (Banded) V-BeltsReference ASAE S211.5 & RMA Standards IP-20 & IP-22 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: RB103-3 Belt Type: B Number of ribs/band: 3 Outside Length (O.L.): 107.0 Part Number + 4.0”= Belt O.L. Note(s): Typical cross section designation for Aggie/L&G Belts adds ‘H’ prefix. For example: RHB, R3V, etc. - For metric designations, refer to appropriate Industry Standard. WRAPPED MOLDED (RB, RC, RD, R3V & R5V) RAW EDGE – COG (RBX, RCX, RDX, R3VX & R5VX)

  13. Product - Standard V-Ribbed BeltsReference ASAE S211.5 & RMA Standard IP-26 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: 400J6 Belt Type: J Number of ribs/band: 6 Outside Length (O.L.): 40.5” Part Number + 0.5” = Belt O.L. Note(s): For metric designations, refer to appropriate Industry Standard. The ‘K’ Section is primarily an MTO item and belt section parameters are determined by application. Cross Sections (J, K, L, & M Sections)

  14. Product - Standard Variable Speed V-BeltsReference RMA Standard IP-25 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: 3226V603 Belt Top Width in 1/16”: 32 Intended Pulley Angle: 26 Outside Length (O.L.): 61.1” Part Number + 0.80”= Belt O.L. Raw Edge Cog Belts Note(s): Aggie counterparts to these sections are termed Adjustable Speed Belts and are listed in the SAE S211.5 Standard. - For metric designations, refer to appropriate Industry Standard.

  15. Product - Standard Synchronous (Straight Sided) BeltsReference RMA Standards IP-24 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (inches) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: 770XL025 Belt Type: XL Width (1/100”): 0.25” Pitch Length (nearest 1/10”): 77.0” Part Number = Pitch Length *10 Notes: For metric information refer to appropriate Industry Standard. Synchronous Single Sided (MXL, XL, L, H, XH & XXH Sections) Synchronous Double Sided (DXL, DH & DXH Sections)

  16. Product - Standard Synchronous (Curvilinear Toothed) BeltsReference RMA Standard IP-27 Nominal Cross-Section Dimensions (mm) Belt Reference Nomenclature Part Number: 600-8M-20 Belt Type: 8M Width (mm): 20 Pitch Length (mm): 600 Part Number = Pitch Length Curvilinear Single Sided (8M & 14M Sections) Curvilinear Double Sided (D8M & D14M Sections)

  17. Product - MTO Made-to-Order (MTO) Key: Application-Specific Design Design machine around standard belt??? or… Design MTO belt around machine???

  18. Product - MTO Modifications The following may be changed to create a Made-to-Order (MTO) Belt • Length • Construction • Materials • Cross-Section

  19. Product - MTO Length Modifications • Non-Standard Lengths (std = 1” increments) • Application-Specific Tolerances

  20. Product - MTO Construction Modifications • Raw-Edge vs. Wrapped • Cogged versus Plain RE • Fabric Plies • Cord Position

  21. Product - MTO Material Modifications • Rubber – abrasion resistance, heat resistance, oil resistance, fiber loading, flex resistance • Cord – shock loading, synchronous tracking, belt stretch • Fabric – clutching requirements, static conductivity

  22. Product - MTO Cross Section Modifications • Width • Thickness • Angle

  23. Product Description Materials Cost Drivers General Drive Design Additional Considerations

  24. Materials Three Basic Materials • Rubber • Cord • Fabric

  25. Materials - Rubber Rubber: General Information • Used in all facets of our life • Over 80 pounds in every car • Natural rubber was primary elastomer prior to WWII • Synthetic rubber (SBR) was introduced in the late 1940’s • Chloroprene was introduced in the late 1950’s • Today we use rubber compounds – blending natural and synthetic to achieve optimal properties

  26. Materials - Rubber Rubber Compound Formulation • Improved processing characteristics • Improved strength and/or hardness • Protection from working environment • Enhance vulcanizing (curing)

  27. Materials - Rubber Typical Rubber Formulation • Elastomer (SBR, Neop, NBR, etc.) • 50% - 60% • Fillers (Carbon Black, Fiber, etc.) • 30% - 40% • Vulcanizers, Cure Agents, Accelerators, Retarders, Processing Aids • 5% - 10%

  28. Materials - Rubber Engineering Properties LEGEND: SBR: Styrene-Butadiene SBR-F: Styrene-Butadiene Fiber Reinforced CR: Neoprene Rubber CR-F: Neoprene Rubber - Fiber Reinforced NBR: Nitrile Rubber BR: Polybutadiene Rubber HSN: Highly Saturated Nitrile PDf: Power Density Factor Ability/strength of rubber to support power transmission. 1 being the best.

  29. Materials - Cord Cord: General Information • Cotton – used extensively in 1940’s & 1950’s • Rayon – popular in the 1950’s & 1960’s • Polyester – introduced in the 1950’s, dominant belt tensile member today • Steel – introduced in the late 1950’s • Fiberglass - introduced in the late 1950’s, popular in synchronous belts • Nomex – introduced in the 1960’s • Aramid (Kevlar) – introduced in the 1970’s, popular in lawn and grounds applications

  30. Materials - Cord Engineering Properties of Various Fibers

  31. Materials - Cord R&D Efforts Focused on Treating and Construction • Developing proper cord twist • Temperature • Tension • Time

  32. Materials - Cord Most Commonly Used • Polyester • Fiberglass • Aramid

  33. Materials - Cord Polyester • Moderate Cost • Good Tensile Strength with Moderate Stretch • Excellent Flex Properties • Shrinkage when Subjected to Heat • Excellent Shock Absorption

  34. Materials - Cord Fiberglass • Moderate Cost • High Tensile Strength with No Stretch • No Shrinkage • Poor Flex Qualities • Low Tolerance for Misalignment • Low Shock Absorption Qualities

  35. Materials - Cord Aramid • High Cost • High Tensile Strength with Minimal Stretch • No Shrinkage • Good Flex Qualities • Some Tolerance for Misalignment

  36. Materials - Cord Engineering Properties *Elongation % is an approximation of belt elongation over its normal life under normal load and operating conditions. NOTE: Common trade names for Aramid are Kevlar (Dupont) and Twaron (Teijin/Twaron) Legend: WM = Wrapped-Molded RE = Raw Edge belts PV = V-Ribbed Belts

  37. Materials - Fabric Fabric: General Information Typically Square, Tubular Woven or Angle Induced • Square Woven can be produced on high speed looms • Highest bias angle = 90 degrees • Tubular Woven is produced as a tube on slow speed looms • Bias angle can be 110 degrees • High bias angle = improved flexibility • Angle Induced is produced on high speed looms as a square woven fabric and the angle is shifted during treatment • Bias angle can be 110 degrees • High bias angle = improved flexibility

  38. Materials - Fabric Polyester/Cotton Blends • Balance of Cost and Performance • Easy to Process • Good Bonding Qualities • Good Abrasion Resistance • Used to Develop Static Conductivity

  39. Materials - Fabric Nylon • Excellent Abrasion Resistance • Higher Elasticity • Primarily Used in Synchronous Belts • Very Difficult to Work With

  40. Materials - Fabric Fabric Treating Single-Sided Coating (Bareback) • Low coefficient of friction for clutching drives Double-Sided Coating • Used for wrapping of molded belts • Used for crack barrier in wrapped-molded belts • Used for laminates in raw edge belts

  41. Materials - Fabric Methods of Treating • Frictioning • Dipping / Spreading • Skimming

  42. Product Description Materials Cost Drivers General Drive Design Additional Considerations

  43. Cost Drivers Cost Drivers • Construction • Materials • Secondary Operations • Tooling

  44. 2 Ply vs. 1 Ply Wrap Cord Types Rubber Core Profile Differences Cost Drivers - Construction Wrapped-Molded V-Belt

  45. Multiple Layers of Fabric Laminate Cord Types Rubber Profile Differences Cogged vs. Non-Cogged Cost Drivers - Construction Raw Edge V-Belt

  46. Cost Drivers - Materials Cord Material Relative Cost Polyester 1.00 Fiberglass 1.05 Aramid 1.15/1.25 SBR-G 1.00 SBR-F 1.10 Neoprene G 1.20 Neoprene F 1.10/1.25 Standard 1.00 Dry Surface 1.20 Extra Dry Surface 1.60 Note: Relative cost is based on total belt cost Rubber Fabric

  47. Cost Drivers – Secondary Operations Cost Drivers SecondaryOperations • Trimming • Printing • Packaging • Measuring

  48. Cost Drivers – Tooling Tooling • Raw Edge - drums range from $2000 to $8000 • Wrapped-Molded - ring molds range from $2000 to $20,000 • Synchronous - molds range from $2000 to $18,000

  49. Product Description Materials Cost Drivers General Drive Design Additional Considerations

  50. Drive Design General Drive Design • Power Transmission and V-Belt Theory • Static and Dynamic Tension • Stress Fatigue Analysis • Drive Geometry • Multiple Plane Drives • Misalignment • Spring Loaded Idlers • Tolerances • Drive Analysis Software