America Becomes a Colonial Power
New Markets More goods were being produced than could be consumed Thus new markets were needed
Arguments against expansion Plenty of places to sell goods at home Anti-colonial feelings .
Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
Believed that a strong Navy was essential for a Nation to be powerful The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783
Refueling stations needed = Colonies for America
3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’sBurden The Hierarchyof Race
4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionariesin China, 1905
Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific"
American trading ships for food and supplies 2,000 miles southwest of San Francisco
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
American sugar planters wanted to keep control Overthrew Queen Lil Now the planters were back in control and would annex Hawaii
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty 1890 – McKinley Tariff 1893 –Americanbusinessmen backed anuprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Doleproclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
“Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million
Spanish American War Spain lost its Empire Cuban patriots rebelled against Spain Spain controlled cities and rebels countryside Spain instituted reconcentration Forced entire populations into arned camps
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst Purchased New York Journal Struggling newspaper Wanted to increase circulation In competition with Joseph Pulitzer
Hearst jumped on Cuba’s cause and published sensational articles “jingoism” Cuba to be free McKinley believed that United states was the dominate presence in Caribbean
Hearst sensationalism “Yellow Journalism” along with Republican support for Cuban independence Common belief that McKinley was drawn into war by yellow journalism and pressure from
De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S. Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and abidder for the admirationof the crowd, besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.
Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
Wood was commander Roosevelt led the “Rough Riders” July 1, 1898 led charge San Juan Hill Minor role Newspapers depicted him a hero Defeated Spanish Army
February 15, 1897 Battleship Maine sailed into Havana harbor Explosion sunk ship Probably was accidental Blamed on Spanish mine and lack of protection form Spain
Congress approved declaration of War Teller Amendment Added to declaration United States would not interfere with any new government of Cuba
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?
August 1898 United States troops along with Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo Captured Manila
Emilio Aguinaldo Leader of the FilipinoUprising. July 4, 1946:Philippine independence