children with disabilities from exclusion to inclusion n.
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  1. CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES…FROM EXCLUSION TO INCLUSION Dr. KantaChandwe Dr. Sophia Msiska Moderator: Prof. Mukelabai

  2. INTRODUCTION • Topics centering on disability typically begin with statistics designed to highlight a problem. • However, these children are someone's sister, brother, friend, son or daughter. • Given the opportunities to flourish as others might, children with disabilities have the potential to to lead fulfilling lives and contribute to the social, cultural and economic vitality of their communities. • Yet surviving and thriving can be especially difficult for children with disabilities. • What is needed is commitment to these children's rights and their futures.

  3. terms • Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. • An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; • An activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; • while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. • Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives.

  4. examples • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) • Cerebral Palsy • Deafness/Hearing Loss • Down Syndrome • Emotional Disturbance • Epilepsy • Learning Disabilities • Mental Retardation • Reading disabilities • Speech and Language Impairments • Traumatic Brain Injury • Visual Impairments • Mobility impairments

  5. From exclusion to inclusion.. • Children with disabilities encounter different forms of exclusion and are affected by them to varying degrees. 1.Type of disability, location, culture or class. 2.Gender is also a crucial factor. Girls are “doubly disabled” 3.Being defined and judged by what one lacks rather than what one has. 4. Exclusion is often the consequence of invisibility.

  6. From exclusion to inclusion.. • The future is far from Grim. Effective means are available to build inclusive societies in which children with and without disabilities can enjoy their rights equally. • Concern for inclusion is rooted in the recognition that a) All children are full members of society: b) Each child is a unique individual who is entitled to be respected and consulted: c) Each child has skills and aspirations worth nurturing and needs that demand fulfillment.

  7. From exclusion to inclusion.. • Inclusion goes beyond ‘integration’. • Integration implies that children with disabilities are to be brought into a pre-existing framework of prevailing norms and standards. • Inclusion benefits everyone.

  8. From exclusion to inclusion.. • Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) • The CRPD is an international human rights treaty of the UN intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. • Parties to the Convention are required to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy full equality under the law. • As of February 2013, 193 countries had ratified the CRC and 127 had ratified the CRPD.

  9. FUNDAMENTALS OF INCLUSION • Adopting an approach grounded in respect for the rights, aspirations and potential of all children can reduce the vulnerability of children with disabilities to discrimination, exclusion and abuse. • Children with disabilities should not be treated or regarded simply as the recipients of charity. • The CRC and CRPD challenge the charitable approach that regard children with disability as passive recipients of care and protection.

  10. FUNDAMENTALS OF INCLUSION • Underestimation of the abilities of people with disabilities is a major obstacle to their inclusion. • It exists not only in society but also in the minds of professionals, politicians and other decision makers.

  11. FUNDAMENTALS OF INCLUSION • 1. Changing attitudes • 2. Supporting children and their families • 3. Community based rehabilitation • 4. Assistive technology • 5. Universal design.

  12. Changing attitudes • Little will change in the lives of children with disabilities until attitudes among communities, professionals, media and governments begin to change.

  13. Supporting children and their Families • The CRPD underlines the role of the family as the natural unit of society and the role of the state in supporting the family. • Inclusion is important at all age but the earlier children with disabilities are given the chance to interact with peers the greater the likely benefits. • Families face a higher cost of living and lost opportunity to earn income. • Studies in Malawi and Uganda showed that households with members who have disabilities have lower incomes.( Groce, Nora, et al)

  14. Assistive technology

  15. Universal design • Principles designed by architects, product designers and engineers • 7 principles : flexibility: Simple: Perceptive information: tolerance for error: low physical effort: size and space for approach and use

  16. A Strong Foundation

  17. A Strong Foundation • Good health, Nutrition and a solid Education: these are the building blocks of life that children and their parents want, and to which all children are entitled. • 1. Inclusive Health -Under the CRC and CRPD, all children have the right to the highest attainable standard of health. -From immunization to treatment of ailments and injuries. -Confidential sexual and reproductive health information/services during adolescence and into early adulthood. -Water, sanitation and hygiene

  18. A Strong Foundation • Inclusive Nutrition • The prevalence of underweight children nationally is 15 %, and the prevalence of severely underweight children is 3 %. 45 % under five are stunted and 21 % are severely stunted.(DHS 2007) • Between 250,000 and 500,000 children are considered to be at risk of becoming blind each year from vitamin A deficiency. • Salt iodization remains the most cost-effective way of delivering iodine and preventing cognition damage in children in iodine-deficient areas.

  19. A Strong Foundation • 2. Inclusive Education -Taking part at school is an important way for children with disabilities to correct misconceptions that prevent inclusion. - Universal primary education cannot be achieved without the inclusion of children with disabilities -children with disabilities aged 6-17yr are significantly less likely to be enrolled in school that peers without disabilities (Fimer,Deon, et al). -Meaningful learning opportunities to all students within the regular school system.

  20. A Strong Foundation • 3. Inclusive Community. • Community based rehabilitation (CBR) seeks to ensure that people with disabilities have equal access to rehabilitation and other services and opportunities. • Developed by WHO, CBR represents a move away from the concentration of care in institutions and at the hands of specialists towards community self reliance.

  21. Thank you…..