WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE n.23 aprilie 1564 - d.23 aprilie 1616
►biography • WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE(baptized 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English Poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language, he is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "The Bard").
►home • SHAKESPEARE was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, who bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith.
►lifevolution &opera • Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later.
►lifevolution &opera MARRIAGE AND LIFE IN LONDON • 1582 at age 18 married Anne Hathaway (his wife was 26) • 1583-1592 ??? • 1592 (28 years old) went to London • actor and playwright • first accused of borrowing from other playwrights • 1592-1594 Plague
►lifevolution &opera SHAKESPEARE PROSPERS • 1598 built Globe Theatre; The Globe Theatre was located in Southwark district of London, red light district; It was built to hold 2,000 – 3,000 audience members. • Owned shares in it • Father granted a coat-of-arms • Gentlemen • Recognized as a genius in his own time HONORED AS ACTOR AND PLAYWRIGHT • Queen Elizabeth dies in 1603 • King James I takes the throne • Shakespeare’s Theatre company becomes the King’s Company • Member of famous writer’s group (Mermaid Tavern) DEATH AND BURIAL AT STRATFORD • 1610 retired from theatre • 1613 Globe theatre burns down • lost much money but still wealthy • helps rebuild Globe theatre • Dies on April 23, 1616 at age 52 1599 1999
►lifevolution &opera SHAKESPEARE’S FOUR PERIODS • First Period - Apprenticeship (Age 26-30) • Second Period • Mastered his art! • Favorite “Romantic Comedy” • Third Period - Problem of Evil in the World • Forth Period • Creates a new drama form • “Tragicomedy” or the dramatic romance
►lifevolution &opera • His surviving works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
►lifevolution &opera • The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama. Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date, however and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare’s earliest period. • Shakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day. He wrote them in a stylised language The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaborate metaphors , and the language is often rhetorical. • Shakespeare’s plays are divided into comedies, histories and tragedies.
►lifevolution &opera Among HISTORIES we should mention: • King John • Richard II • Henry IV, part 1 • Henry IV, part 2 • Henry V • Henry VI, part 1 • Henry VI, part 2 • Henry VI, part 3 • Richard III • Henry VIII TRAGEDIES: • Romeo and Juliet • Coriolanus • Titus Andronicus • Timon of Athens • Julius Caesar • Macbeth • Hamlet • Troilus and Cressida • King Lear • Othello • Antony and Cleopatra • Cymbeline COMEDIES • All's Well That Ends Well • As You Like It • The Comedy of Errors • Love's Labour's Lost • Measure for Measure • The Merchant of Venice • The Merry Wives of Windsor • A Midsummer Night's Dream • Much Ado About Nothing • Pericles, Prince of Tyre • The Taming of the Shrew • The Tempest • Twelfth Night, or What You Will • The Two Gentlemen of Verona • The Two Noble Kinsmen • The Winter's Tale
►short analitic view • Shakespeare most performed plays are: Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Othello, The Tempest, A Midsummer Night's Dream, King Lear, The Taming of the Shrew. The tragic structure of human nature is heavenly exhibited in “Hamlet” considered as being “Shakespeare’s longest play and among the most powerful and influential tragedies in the English literature”(Thomson). • Tragedies like Romeo and Juliet, Titus Andronicus, Mac Beth, King Lear, Othello, Anthony and Cleopatra, Cymbeline open an endless capacity of analyzing human being behaviour. • The bloody endings, the harsh perspective on life featuring revenge, guilt, death, suicide, madness, outrageous murders, jealousy, complete the tragic life circle, leaving the audience and readers breathless. • Comedies “As you like it”, “Measure for Measure”, “Love’s Labour’s Lost”, “The Comedy of Errors”, “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”, “The Tempest” display the never-ending struggle between the forces of good and evil and the theme of love that has profound effects on characters’ actions compelling the fact that most of them hide themselves in false identities. • Published in 1609, the Sonnets were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed. A prominent theme of Shakespeare's sonnets is the paradoxical nature of love, Shakespeare depicted the human passion. Other themes refer to beauty, mortality, the ravages of time.
►poetical view • Timpul este prea lent pentru cei care aşteaptă, prea iute pentru cei care se tem, prea lung pentru cei care se plâng, prea scurt pentru cei care sărbătoresc. Dar, pentru cei ce iubesc, timpul este o eternitate. Să te asemăn cu o zi de vară?Frumuseţe şi balanţă ai mai mult.În mai, ades furtuni muguri doboară,Iar verile-s prea scurte, şi-n tumult.De multe ori cerescul ochi prea arde,Sau ceţuri auriul chip l-au şters,Şi ce-i frumos din frumuseţe scadeÎntâmplător, sau de-al naturii mers.Dar veşnica ta vară nu se duce,Minunea chipului tu n-o să-ţi schimbi,Nu te umbreşte moartea-ntre năluceCând în eterne versuri creşti în timp.Cât mai respiră-n lume om, cât ochiu-nvaţă,Trăi-va şi acest poem şi-ţi va da viaţă. Când ochii mi-i închid ei văd mai bineCă ziua n-au prea multe de aflat;Dar când adorm, în vis pornesc spre tineŞi-n beznă, vii, viu bezna o străbat.Tu, umbră ce dai umbrelor splendoare,Fă umbra ta aievea să-mi apară;Când ochii orbi o văd strălucitoare,În clar de zi va străluci mai clară.Încântă-mi ochii, spun, că tare-aş vreaSă-i văd pe-ai tăi în fapt de dimineaţăAşa cum toată noaptea umbra taÎn somnu-mi greu privirea mi-o răsfaţă.Când nu te văd, mi-e ziua noapte-ntreagăŞi noaptea-i zi când visele te-ncheagă. Sonet 43
►after time • O, slăbiciune, numele tău e femeie! • Lumea-ntreagă e o scenă şi toţi oamenii-s actori. • Ceea ce vrem să facem, s-o facem atunci când vrem; pentru că acest “vrem” se schimbă şi are scăderi şi amânări. • Suntem făcuţi din acelaşi material din care sunt ţesute visele. • Moartea este o datorie pe care fiecare nu o poate plăti decât o singură dată. • Ascultă-i pe mulţi, vorbeşte la puţini. • Nu există nimic bun sau rău, numai gândirea noastră face ca lucrurile să arate astfel. • Voinţa noastră şi destinul merg atât de opus încât planurile mereu ne sunt răsturnate. • Noi când ne naştem plângem că intrăm... pe aceasta mare scenă de bufoni
►finish. backdrop falls. all‘s well that ends well. but his opera never ended… cristina & daniel murăriţa ► player