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Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice in Wisconsin

Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice in Wisconsin

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Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice in Wisconsin

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  1. Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice in Wisconsin Pamela Oliver

  2. Plan for the Talk • National overview • Wisconsin patterns in imprisonment (with mention of overall incarceration) • Age Patterns of imprisonment in Wisconsin • County comparisons in imprisonment • County comparisons in arrests: Short • Implications: making the problem worse • What is to be done

  3. The Magnitude of the Problem

  4. Comparing International Incarceration Rates (Source: Sentencing Project)

  5. World Incarceration Rates in 1995: Adding US Race Patterns

  6. Nationally, The Black Population is Being Imprisoned at Alarming Rates • Upwards of 1/3 of the Black male population is under the supervision of the correctional system (prison, jail, parole, probation) • Estimated “lifetime expectancy” of spending some time in prison is 29% for young Black men. • About 12% of Black men in their 20s are in prison • 7% of Black children, 2.6% of Hispanic children, .8% of White children have a parent in prison (at one time) – lifetime expectancy much higher

  7. About Rates & Disparity Ratios • Imprisonment and arrest rates are expressed as the rate per 100,000 of the appropriate population • Example: In 1999 Wisconsin new prison sentences • 1021 Whites imprisoned, White population of Wisconsin was 4,701,123: 1021 ÷ 4701123 = .000217. Multiply .00021 by 100,000 = 22, the imprisonment rate per 100,000 population. • 1,266 Blacks imprisoned, Black population of Wisconsin was 285,308. 1266 ÷ 285308 = .004437. Multiply by 100,000 = 444 • Calculate Disparity Ratios by dividing rates: 444/22 = 20.4 the Black/White ratio in new prison sentence rates

  8. US Prison Admissions by Race

  9. The 1970’s Policy Shift • Shift to determinate sentencing, higher penalties • LEAA, increased funding for police departments • Crime becomes a political issue • Drug war funding gives incentives to police to generate drug arrests & convictions • Post-civil rights post-riots competitive race relations, race-coded political rhetoric.?

  10. Social Conditions, Political Processes, Crime, and Corrections

  11. Imprisonment Has Increased While Crime Has Declined • Imprisonment rates are a function of responses to crime, not a function of crime itself • Property crimes declined steadily between 1970s and 2000 • Violent crime declined modestly overall, with smaller ups and downs in the period

  12. Crime Trends Source: Crunching Numbers: Crime and Incarceration at the End of the Millennium by Jan M. Chaiken Based on Bureau of Justice Statistics data from National Crime Victimization Survey. Figures adjusted for changed methodology, shaded area marks change.

  13. Property Crime

  14. Violent Crime

  15. Rape

  16. The Drug War • Most of the increase in imprisonment is due to drug offenses. • Drug use rates have generally declined since the 1980s, while drug imprisonments have increased. • Black adult drug use rates are only slightly higher than White (see next chart), while their imprisonment rates for drugs are enormous • Among juveniles, Blacks use illegal drugs less than Whites, but Black juveniles have much higher drug arrest rates.

  17. Current Illicit Drug Use Among Adults (National Patterns) • 6.6 percent for Whites • 6.8 percent for Hispanics • 7.7 percent for Blacks • 10.6 percent for American Indian/Alaska Natives (this is largely marijuana, rates for other drugs are lower than other races) • 11.2 percent for persons reporting multiple race • 3.2 percent for Asians • Source: 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

  18. Wisconsin’s High Black Incarceration Rate Headlines in 2002 “Wisconsin #1 in Black incarceration in 2001”

  19. Contributors to Incarceration Rates • Prisons (state-level & federal facilities) • New sentences for new offenses • Length of sentence for each offense • Probation & parole revocations • Jails (local county-level facilities) • Short-term sentences for convictions (number & length per sentence • Held awaiting trial • Held awaiting probation/parole revocation hearing • Growing use of prisons/jails for disruptive mentally ill

  20. Disparities Higher For Prison than Jail • BJS said Wisconsin’s overall Black/White incarceration disparity is 10 to 1. • Prison disparity is closer to 20 to 1 • This means there is less disparity in jail than prisons • Most of Wisconsin’s counties are overwhelmingly White, presumably have overwhelmingly Whites in their jails • Prisons in Wisconsin are now majority Black despite Blacks being only 5% of general population

  21. Wisconsin Prison Admissions Including Detailed Time Trends 1990-1999

  22. New Imprisonment Rates by State, 1996

  23. National & Wisconsin Imprisonment Rates

  24. Wisconsin Prison Admissions by Race Black AmerInd Hispanic White Asian

  25. Wisconsin: White NH Total Prison Admissions Total Admits, Whites Violent Theft Robbery & Burglary Drugs Other

  26. Total Admits, Offense Blacks Drugs Violent Robbery & Burglary Other Theft

  27. Total Admits, Hispanics Drugs Violent Robbery & Burglary Theft Other

  28. Proportion of Admissions Involving New Sentences

  29. White Admissions Status Violation Only New Sentence Only Violation + New

  30. Blacks Admission Status Violation Only New Sentence Only Violation + New

  31. Total admits, violations only Black AmerInd Hispanic White Asian

  32. Whites, Violators Violent Theft Robbery & Burglary Other Drugs

  33. Black violators Drugs Violent Theft Robbery & Burglary Other

  34. Prison Admission by Race 1990-1999, New Sentence Only Total Admits, New Sentences Only Black Hispanic AmerInd Asian White

  35. New Sentences, Whites Violent Robbery & Burglary Other Theft Drugs

  36. New Sentences, Blacks Offense Drugs Violent Robbery & Burglary Theft Other

  37. Conclusions About Wisconsin Prison Admissions • Huge racial disparities, especially Black vs. White • Probation/parole violators returning to prison are a major source of the rise • Blacks show steep rises in new sentences for drugs, while Whites show no increase • White new sentences are primarily for violent offenses. • Black new sentences are primarily for drug offenses.

  38. Age Patterns for Imprisonment

  39. New sentences by age, race

  40. Offenses by Age, Whites

  41. Offenses by Age, Blacks

  42. Disparities by Age, Offense

  43. County Comparisons

  44. Males in prison per 100,000 population in April 2000, Wisconsin Counties with More than 1000 Non-Prisoner Blacks # counties with < 1000 American Indians Graphic calculated using 1999 population estimates

  45. Females in Prison per 100,000 population in April, 2000,Wisconsin Counties with More than 1000 Non-Prisoner Blacks # counties with < 1000 American Indians Graphic calculated using 1999 population estimates

  46. Total Prison Admissions Per 100,000 in 1999

  47. Compare Counties Whites New Sentences

  48. Compare counties Black, new sentences thick

  49. Compare Counties, New Sentences B/w ratio