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Payment Methods

Payment Methods

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Payment Methods

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  1. Payment Methods Prepared By William Cheung COMP3610 (Fall 2001) CS, HKBU

  2. Cash Check Private VAN Direct Debit Credit / Debit Cards Credit Accounts Internet Electronic/Digital Cash Payment Methods Overview Good Exchange Payment Methods

  3. Depends on transaction types - C2C, B2C or B2B Payment Methods • Cash • Cheque • Direct debit (~ Autopay) • Credit card • Debit card (~EPS) • Credit accounts Payment Methods

  4. Terminology • Invoicing (Seller to Buyer) • electronic invoice, e.g., email, on-line view of an account • Clearance (Buyer to Bank) • transmission of payment order • Settlement (Bank) • recording debit (Buyer) and credit (Seller) positions for involved parties. • Collections (Bank) • At a particular time, buyer account is debited and seller one is credited. Payment Methods

  5. Fund Transfer 3. Mark down Credit M M - Open an account - Provide POS devices AB 2. Clearing-A: Submit transactions Acquiring Bank Merchant private network e.g., PSTN, X.25 (e.g. VisaNet) private network 1. Authorization Payment Service Provider (e.g. Visa) 0. Purchase using credit card private network 6. Billing Issuing Bank Customer 7. Payment 4. Clearing-B - Open an account - Issue a credit card 5. Settlement Credit Card Payment Payment Methods

  6. POS in physical store Cardholder Present transactions private network e.g., PSTN, X.25 BANK - mail order - phone order - on-line order Cardholder Not Present transactions ? Credit Card Payment What should be the next step? Should they all follow the same step? What is the difference? Payment Methods

  7. POS in physical store Cardholder Present transactions private network e.g., PSTN, X.25 BANK Manual Input Automated Gateway Credit Card Payment - mail order - phone order - on-line order Cardholder Not Present transactions 1. Protocols 2. Security (Encryption) (Authentication) What are the issues? Payment Methods

  8. SET for Payment via Internet • http://www.setco.org • Developed jointly by Visa and MasterCard. • Strong encryption and authentication of all the parties in a credit card transaction: • the buyer (cardholder) • the merchant • the acquiring bank … with the help of a certificate authority Payment Methods

  9. SET for Payment via Internet • Emerging standard for handling credit card transaction on the Internet. • Confidentiality of payment information (How?) • Integrity of transmitted data (How?) • cardholder authentication (How?) • merchant authentication (How?) • authorization and settlement of credit card transactions (How does it compare to the conventional system? What are the differences?) Payment Methods

  10. SET Software Components Certificate Authority - Open an account - Set up Merchant Server Acquiring Bank Merchant Merchant Server Payment Gateway Internet private network Payment Service Provider (e.g. Visa) E-Wallet private network Issuing Bank Customer - Open an account - Install wallet program Payment Methods

  11. http://www.setco.org/cgi-bin/vsm.cgi Payment Methods

  12. SET for Payment via Internet • Buyer/Cardholder • open an account in the issuing bank, which supports SET. • obtain a digital certificate from a recognized CA, which can be used in the SET transactions. Payment Methods

  13. SET for Payment via Internet • Merchant • open an account in the acquiring bank, which supports SET. • Install a merchant server for handling the SET transaction from cardholder to the payment gateway. • Obtain a digital certificate from a CA which supports SET - with the trademark (SET™). Payment Methods

  14. SET for Payment via Internet • Payment Gateway (Bank) • Install a payment gateway server for handling the SET transaction, connecting the internet with the private financial network. (That’s why it is called gateway) • Obtain a digital certificate from a CA which supports SET - with the trademark (SET™). Payment Methods

  15. SET for Payment via Internet • Certificate Authorities • A third party organization not involved in any entities involved in the SET transaction. • Issues certificates to buyers, merchants, payment gateway involved in SET transactions. Payment Methods

  16. - Assign Transaction ID - Generate Response (ID) - Sign Response (Mer-pri) - Send signed Response - Send Mer-cert + Gat-cert - Verify Mer-signature - Verify Mer-cert - Create Order info. (OI) - Create Payment info. (PI) - Create Dual Signature of ..OI + PI - Generate session key (K) - Encrypt PI using K - Encrypt cardholder’s ..account info (AI) and K ..by Gat_pub in Gat-cert - Send OI + EK(PI) ...+ EGat_pub(AI + K) + ... SET Transaction Merchant Server Payment Gateway E-Wallet in cardholder computer Car-cert Mer-cert Gat-cert - Send “Pay by SET” Payment Methods

  17. - Verify Car-cert - Verify the dual signature ..(how?) - Forward EK(PI) …..+ EGat_pub(AI + K) …..+ Dual Signature …..+ Digest of OI - Obtain AI + PI (How?) - Verify the dual signature - Authorize AI + PI (How?) - Send authorization result - Process OI - Create Purchase Response - Sign & send the response - Verify Mer-cert - Verify Mer-signature SET Transaction Merchant Server Payment Gateway E-Wallet in cardholder computer Car-cert Mer-cert Gat-cert - … - Send OI + EK(PI) …..+ EGat_pub(AI + K) …..+ Dual Signature …..+ Digest of PI . + Car-cert Done!! Payment Methods

  18. Dual Signature DUAL SIGNATURE CREATION (cardholder side) • Step 1: Pass OI and PI to a hash function separately to generate two digests. • Step 2: Concatenate the two digests. • Step 3: Pass them to the hash function again to generate a dual digest. • Step 4: Encrypt the dual digest by the cardholder private key to generate the DUAL SIGNATURE. • Step 5: Send the DUAL SIGNATURE as well as the digest of PI to the merchant. Payment Methods

  19. Dual Signature DUAL SIGNATURE VERIFICATION BY MERCHANT (The merchant has OI in plain text) • Step 1: Decrypt the DUAL SIGNATURE by cardholder public key to obtain the received dual digest (digest-1). • Step 2: Pass the received OI to hash function to generate the digest of OI. • Step 3: Concatenate the digest of OI with the received digest of PI and pass it to the hash function to regenerate the dual digest (digest-2). • Step 4: Compare to see whether digest-1 and digest-2 are the same. • Step 5: Send the Payment Gateway the dual signature and the digest of OI. Payment Methods

  20. Dual Signature DUAL SIGNATURE VERIFICATION BY PAYMENT GATEWAY • Step 1: Decrypt the DUAL SIGNATURE by cardholder public key to obtain the received dual digest (digest-3 = digest-1). • Step 2: After some steps to get back the PI (see you note) and generate the digest of PI • Step 3: Concatenate the digest of PI with the received digest of OI and pass it to the hash function to regenerate the dual digest (digest-4). • Step 4: Compare to see whether digest-3 and digest-4 are the same. • Step 5: Start the authorization process and send back the result to the merchant Payment Methods

  21. Dual Signature INTREPRETATION • With this design, both the merchant and the bank can guarantee the integrity of the OI AND PI while OI is only revealed to the merchant and PI is only revealed to the bank only. Payment Methods

  22. Micropayment Instruments • Mainly two categories: • For shopping in physical stores (smart-card based products) • Why is it useful? • For on-line shopping (digital representation of monetary values) • Why is it useful? Payment Methods

  23. Smart Cards • Examples: Mondex, Visa Cash • Contact vs Contactless • Disposable vs Reloadable • Single-purpose vs General-purpose • electronic cash • digital certificate • electronic authentication Payment Methods

  24. Smart Card • About the size of a plastic credit card • compose of • a computing unit • memory units (ROM and RAM) • interface to the outside world • components for cryptographic operations • some are programmable • Readers are required Payment Methods

  25. On-line Micropayment • Small-valued transactions - a few cents or less • Why do we care? • Revenue source for intangible goods • What should be the most distinct characteristic of micropayment systems compared with credit card payment? • How does the on-line publisher get revenue nowadays and what does the micropayment alternative imply? Payment Methods

  26. Micropayment Systems • centralized notational (e.g., NetBill) - centralized fund transfer • distributed notational (e.g., Mondex) - distributed fund transfer • centralized token (e.g., DigiCash) - centralized token transfer • distributed token (e.g., PayWord, MiniPay) - distributed token Payment Methods

  27. NetBill • Developed by Carnegie Mellon University. • Provides payment as well as digital good delivery. • All the transactions are atomic. • Customer: install MoneyTool (prefunded using a credit card) • Merchant: install Product Server Payment Methods

  28. Customer Merchant NetBill Server Payment Methods

  29. How NetBill works? • Merchant sends encrypted goods to you. • Money Tool on your machine verifies that the goods were received intact and sends verification of this to the merchant's server. • Merchant sends your verification message, your account information, & the decryption key to the NetBill server. • The NetBill server verifies that there is money in your account to pay for the goods. If there is, it transfers the funds, stores the decryption key, and sends a report back to the merchant's server. • Merchant sends the decryption key to your Money Tool uses to decrypt the goods. Payment Methods

  30. Payment Methods

  31. eCash (formerly called Digicash) • Developed by David Chaum for on-line shopping. • Both customer and merchant need accounts in some bank issuing eCash as well as specialized software ( eCash Purse and eCash Merchant Purse) • Bank requires a server which can issue eCash. • Two technologies are adopted for producing eCash • Blind Signature: for anonymity • Double Spending Detection Payment Methods

  32. A eCash request signed by Alice Send a digital note signed by bank Verify and remove Alice’s signature, Debit Alice’s account Multiple a random number to note number and request it Divide the random number from note number Achieve Anonymity !! Payment Methods

  33. PayWord • It is a credit-based (What does it mean?). Adopted in Micropayment Transfer Protocol (MPTP) - a working draft released by W3C. • User need to establish an account in a broker, who will issue the user a specific certificate with both broker and user information. • Step 1: User generates n “tokens” by randomly picking a number wn and using a hash function h() to generate {w0,w1,…wn} s.t. wi-1 = h(wi) • Step 2: User send merchant the certificate and {w0} as “commitment” • Step 3: User will use the (w1,1), (w2,2), … as token for subsequent payment, one at a time. • Step 4: Merchant first verifies the certificate (signature verification) and each (wi,i) can be verified by the previous token wi-1 (hash fnt.). • Step 5: At the end of the day, the broker receives the “commitment” as well as the largest index token from the merchant for settlement. Payment Methods

  34. PayWord User Merchant W(i-1) W(i) One-way function . . w(2) w(0) w(1) w(n) w(n-1) . . . . . 3rd token 2nd token 1st token Payment Methods

  35. Micropayment by Aggregation: Pre-pay or Post-pay • Pre-pay strategies (debit account) • charged in advance and then debit later • Post-pay strategies (credit account) • aggregate the charges and bill the customer later • Considerations • Risks involved • Aggregation at client side or server side (wallet or account)? Can be used for different shops? Payment Methods

  36. Mission Critical IS How about the Financial Network • SWIFT (international) • The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication • a global (private) system for financial messages • nearly real-time gross settlement system • Fedwire (US-based; domestic transaction) • Real-time gross settlement system • CHIPS (US-based; foreign transaction) • Clearing House Interbank Payments System • not real-time; settlement occurs at the end of the day. Payment Methods

  37. References • Norris M., West S., and Gaughan K., eBusiness Essentials (Chapter 4), Wiley, 2000 • W. Archibald, Using SET for Secure Electronic Commerce, Prentice Hall, 1998 • eCash: http://ntrg.cs.tcd.ie/mepeirce/Project/Chaum/sciam.html (2/11/00) • MPTP: http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-mptp-951122 (2/11/00) Payment Methods