Download
kingdoms of the living world n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Kingdoms of the Living World PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Kingdoms of the Living World

Kingdoms of the Living World

568 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Kingdoms of the Living World

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Kingdoms of the Living World • Classically 2 Kingdoms • They were : • Plants • Animals

  2. Kingdoms of the Living World • Today 5 Kingdoms: • Monera – Bacteria and Blue-green Algae • Fungi – Fungi and Slime-molds • Protista – Protozoans • Plants • Animals

  3. KINGDOM PROTISTA

  4. What is a Protozoan ??? • Single celled Eukaryotic organisms • Eu – True • Karyotic - Nucleus

  5. Possess organelles to carry out complex functions • Respiration – Cell membrane • Water Balance – Contractile vacuoles • Digestion – Food Vacuoles • Locomotion – Cilia, Flagella, Pseudopodia

  6. Locomotion • Flagella • Present in Flagellates (Euglenozoa, Dinoflagellata) • Built like a cable • Arise from Kinetosome – provides energy • Beats like an Oar • Jerky movement

  7. Locomotion • Cilia • Present in Ciliates (Ciliophora) • Identical to Flagella – Only shorter • Kinetosomes connected by Kinetodermal fibers • Allows for coordination – smooth movement

  8. Locomotion • Pseudopodia • Present in Amoeba • Moves on substrate, rather than swimming

  9. Nutrition • Autotrophs- self feeding • Heterotrophs – eat others • Holozoic- eat pieces of food • Saprozoic- absorb nutrients across cell membrane - molecular level

  10. Nutrition in various groups • Chlorophyta - Autotrophs • Ameoba-like animals • Phagocytosis • Pinocytosis • Ciliophora – Heterotrophs • Apicomplexa - Parasites

  11. Osmoregulation • Water balance • Contractile Vacuole • Freshwater – Cells Hypertonic to surroundings – Pick up water • Marine – Cells Hypotonic to surroundings – loose water • Parasites - Isotonic

  12. Reproduction • Asexual • Binary fission • Budding • Multiple fission • Schizogony • Sporogony – multiple fission preceded by union of gametes

  13. Reproduction • Sexual reproduction • Union of gametes • Isogametes • Anisogametes

  14. Reproduction • Encystment vs. Excystment • During harsh environmental conditions • Build a thick coat – Encystment • Conditions favorable – break the coat - Excystment

  15. Phylum: Chlorophyta • Asexual – Binary fission • Colonial forms - Volvox

  16. Ciliates • Paramecium • Asexual – Binary fission

  17. Ciliates • Paramecium • Sexual Reproduction – Conjugation • 2 types of Nuclei • Macronucleus • Micronucleus

  18. Apicomplexa • Most are parasitic • Usually 2 types of hosts • Definitive host – Final host • Intermediate host – mode of transport • Plasmodium causes Malaria

  19. Sensory / Defense Structures • Ciliates – Trichocysts • Euglenozoa – Stigma / Eyespot • Apicomplexa – Parasitic (so no structures)

  20. Higher Classification of Protozoans • Phylum Sarcomastigophora • Subphylum Sarcodina (e.g., Amoeba) • Subphylum Mastigophora • Class Phytomastigophora (e.g., Euglena and Volvox) • Class Zoomastigophora (e.g., Trypanosoma)

  21. Higher Classification of Protozoans • Phylum Apicomplexa • Class Coccidea (parasites of invertebrates) • Class Sporozoa (e.g., Plasmodium- malaria) • Mosquito is the vector; human is the host

  22. Higher Classification of Protozoans • Phylum Ciliophora (ciliates) • All have cilia • All have macronucleus (i.e., vegetative) • All have micronucleus (i.e., reproductive) • All have cytostome