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Vocabulary – Pages 194-196

Vocabulary – Pages 194-196

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Vocabulary – Pages 194-196

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  1. Vocabulary – Pages 194-196 Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Vacuole Lysosome Centriole

  2. Cellular Structure and Function Section 1 Prokaryotic Cell • With out a nucleus • Do not contain membrane-bound organelles Steven P. Lynch

  3. Cellular Structure and Function Section 1 Prokaryotic Cell • Prokaryotic cells includes all bacteria • Prokaryotes contain only the following structures: • Cell wall (peptidoglycan) • Plasma membrane • Genetic material as a single circular molecule of DNA • Ribosomes • Cytoplasm • Plasmid (Small circular piece of DNA that only some bacteria possess)

  4. Cellular Structure and Function Section 1 Cell Discovery and Theory Prokaryotic Cell

  5. Cellular Structure and Function Section 1 Eukaryotic Cell • More complex structure than prokaryotes • In addition to the prokaryotic structures, eukaryotes also have membrane bound organelles, including a nucleus

  6. Cellular Structure and Function Section 1

  7. Cellular Structure and Function Section 1 Cell Discovery and Theory Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells The

  8. Cellular Structure and Function Section 1 Plasma Membrane • Thin, flexible boundary between the cell and its environment • Allows nutrients into the cell • Allows waste to leave the cell • Selective permeability, phospholipid bilayer, fluid mosaic model

  9. Cellular Structure and Function Section 3 Plant and Animal Cell Structures • Organelles are bodies within the cytoplasm that serve to physically separate the various metabolic reactions that occur within the cells • Organelles are specialized structures that carry out specific cell function • Nucleus Mitochondria • Ribosomes Chloroplasts • Endoplasmic reticulum Cytoskeleton • Golgi Apparatus Flagella & Cilia • Lysosomes Centrioles • Peroxisomes Vacuoles & Vesicles

  10. Cellular Structure and Function Section 3 Structures and Organelles

  11. Cellular Structure and Function Section 3 Structures and Organelles

  12. Cytoplasm • Semifluid material makes up the inside of a cell • Environment within the plasma membrane that contains the cells organelles

  13. Cells Cytoskeleton • Framework for the cell within the cytoplasm • Involved in establishing the shape of the cell and coordinating movements • Microtubles and microfilaments – supporting network of long protein fibers • Provides an anchor for the organelles

  14. Cells Cytoskeleton

  15. Cells Nucleus • Control center of the cell, the brain of the cell • Contains coded directions, DNA, the heredity information of the cell • Surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope • Chromatin is spread throughout the nucleus

  16. Cells

  17. Nucleolus • Within the nucleus • Site of ribosome production

  18. Cells Ribosomes • Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis • Ribosomes are manufactured in the nucleus and consist of ribosomal RNA and protein • Not bound by a membrane

  19. Cells Endoplasmic Reticulum • Stacks of flattened sacs of highly folded membrane • ER is connected to the nucleus

  20. Smooth ER Cells Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER Contains ribosomes Aids in protein synthesis No ribosomes Synthesis of carbs and lipids

  21. Cells

  22. Cells Golgi Apparatus • Flattened stack of tubular membranes • Modifies proteins and packages them for distribution outside the cell • Think of it as Fed Ex –package and ship

  23. Vacuoles • Fluid-filled membrane sac • Used to store food, waste products, enzymes, and other materials

  24. Cells Vacuoles • -Central vacuoles are large bodies that store water and occupies most of the interior of plant cells • -If the central vacuole runs low on water, the plant will begin to wilt • -The central vacuole in plants stores starch, pigments, and toxic substances

  25. Lysosomes • Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus that contain digestive enzymes • The cell’s stomach • Breakdown excess or worn-out cellular substances • Digests waste, food, cellular debris, and foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses

  26. Cells Lysosomes

  27. Centrioles • Made up of groups of microtubules • Play a role in cell division, occur in pairs

  28. Mitochondria • Powerhouse of the cell • Large surface area: outer and highly folded inner membrane • Breaks bonds in sugar molecules to provide energy for the cell

  29. Mitochondria

  30. Chloroplasts • Specialized organelles found in plant cells • Carry out photosynthesis, the process of capturing energy from sunlight and converting it into useable energy • Thylakoid compartments containing chlorophyll

  31. Cells Chloroplasts

  32. Cell Wall • Inflexible barrier that provides support and protection • Thick, rigid mesh of cellulose fibers Cell wall

  33. Cilia • Short, numerous, hair like projections from cell surface • Aids in locomotion and feeding • Also used to sweep substances along surfaces

  34. Cellular Structure and Function Section 3 Flagella • Longer and less numerous than cilia • Create movement with a whiplike motion • Aids in locomotion and feeding • Typically on or two present Flagella

  35. Cellular Structure and Function Section 3 Table 7.1 Summary of Cell Structure Table 7.2 Summary of Cell Structure Table 7.3 Summary of Cell Structure

  36. Cellular Structure and Function Section 3 Structures and Organelles Plant and Animal Cell Structures

  37. cells: Cell Wall Chloroplasts Central Vacuole Structures only found in Plant Cells