Module 30 Introduction to Intelligence Worth Publishers
Origins of Intelligence Testing • Intelligence Test • a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores
What is Intelligence? • Intelligence • ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
What is Intelligence? • In research studies, intelligence has been whatever intelligence tests measure, which historically has tended to be school smarts. • Two controversies remain: • Is intelligence a single overall ability or several specific abilities? • With the tools neuroscience now offers, can we locate and measure intelligence within the brain?
What is Intelligence?Factor-Analysis Approach • Factor Analysis • statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test (do well on vocab. items often do well on paragraph comprehension) • used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score • General Intelligence(g) • factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities • measured by every task on an intelligence test – been used to predict job perf. and occ. status
Are There Multiple Intelligences? Contemporary Intelligence Theories • Howard Gardner – Multiple Intelligences (8) • Argues that we do not have an intelligence, but instead have multiple intelligences, each relatively independent of the others • Savant Syndrome • condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill (4 in 5 savants are males) • computation, drawing
Are There Multiple Intelligences? • Howard Gardner – Mult. Intelligences (8) • Argues that there are eight of these independent intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist • Critics question whether each intelligence should carry equal weight when considering one’s intelligence
Are There Multiple Intelligences? Robert Sternberg – Three Aspects of Intelligence • Analytical(academic/problem-solving)Intelligence – assessed by intelligence tests • Creative Intelligence – demonstrated by reacting adaptively to novel situation and generating novel ideas • Practical Intelligence – often required for everyday tasks, which are freq. ill-defined, with multiple solutions
Are There Multiple Intelligences? • Social Intelligence • the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully • Emotional Intelligence • ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions • Suggested that these individuals will succeed in careers, marriages, parenting
Are There Multiple Intelligences? • Question – • Can we test these intelligences and how? • Do these concepts stretch intelligence too far? Should we include these intelligences with analytical intelligence?
Intelligence and Creativity Is creativity linked to intelligence? • Creativity • the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas • expertise • imaginative thinking skills • venturesome personality • intrinsic motivation • creative environment
Brain Function and Intelligence • Could brain size, structure, or functioning explain differences in intelligence? • Brain size • Brain function • Processing Speed • Perceptual Speed (taking in information) • Neurological Speed (registering stimulus)
Mask Stimulus Question: Long side on left or right? Brain Function and Intelligence • People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests