Connecticut River Valley Watershed we are here The Deerfield River meets the Connecticut river in Greenfield
Forests Carbon Cycle Reduce Greenhouse Gases Protect our watershed Serve as a buffering zone and filtering system Goods and Resources Scenic landscapes and recreation Provide Wildlife Habitat Source of biodiversity Maintain our soils Provide cooler Human habitat Shade in summer reduce need for air conditioning
History of our Forest Harvard Forest Dioramas Original Forest Young hardwood forest 1830 to 1880 Early Agriculture Abandonded Farmland-White Pine Modern Forest
Greenfield Land Use Forested land-47% Crop land- 11% Residential Land 20% • Our local forests are aging. • Our local forests are predominantly oak and pine, with a lot of maple and beech too.
• What uses are compatible? How intensively can we use forest resources and still expect the same uses in the future? • “Saving the trees” is actually harming the forest. • Having some “Scrags” is good, but too many is bad. • Keeping a balanced biodiversity is key. • New growth is important because it photosynthesizes better than old growth. • To keep the forests production high, use selective cutting.
Traditional Forest Practices Selective Cutting Plantation Forest Not one method work s independently
Critical Current Forest Issues • Scott Sylvester Local forester all over Franklin County. • Top problems with New England Forest • Habitat Fragmentation- animals cannot get to each other due to building homes. • Strategies of home islands • Invasives Multiflora Rose- Barberry- bittersweet, Garlic mustard is an allelopath- releasing chemicals to deter native species • Japanes barberry.. turkeys love it but it grows so densely that is inhibits any natural growth… “that is not good .. no matter if the turkeys love it” • Insect Pests- a) Hemlock wooly Adelgid • B) Emrald Ash Borer • C) Long Horn Beetle that so devastated Worcester • d. • 3 Climate Change- See the Maple Sugars decline $ maple sugaring offers to the North Woods….Red Oak Increase along with Southern Species move in which difficult to know.. all the issues until it happens.
Private Landowner-lumber Old Forest… 100 years
Wildlife-Birding Multi-Use Mixed Forest As a consultant- Scott Sylvester devised his own DI. “It is necessary to know what the homeowner wants; values, then you determine the best method of forestry.” Dairy Cows Sugaring Fuel wood
Forest Mgt plan 61 Current Use Practices For Example- One landowner values wildlife habitat above all. So a site was chosen on open hilltop, where diseased and old tree species. Cleared for early successional habitat.. Perfect because of the poor soils on hilltop.
Tree Wardens of Massachusetts Greenfield Tree Warden Paul
What is Current Use? Massachusetts current use programs (Ch. 61, Ch. 61A, and Ch. 61B) were created to give preferential tax treatment to those landowners who maintain their property as open space for the purposes of timber production, agriculture or recreation. Chapter 61 was designed to classify forestland. Chapter 61A was designed to classify agricultural land which may include forestland and Chapter 61B was designed to classify recreational land which can also include forestland. Lowering Taxes Forestland may be enrolled in either the Ch. 61 or Ch. 61A program and is taxed at the same rate. Taxes for those properties enrolled in Ch. 61/61A are determined based on the current use of the property (i.e., the productive potential of your land for growing trees), instead of the fair market or development value. Recommended current use values for forest land are set on an annual basis by the Farm Land Advisory Committee on or before February 1 of a given calendar year.
People Who Contribute Greenfield Tree Warden- Paul Raskevitz Kleeberg's Sugar HouseBernardston, Deerfield and Greenfield. Martin's Farm in Greenfield, MAorganic certified 373 Plain RoadGreenfield, MA
Sustainable Practices Know your goals and your land Goals- Marketing lumber Wildlife Habitat Recreation Diversity as DeGraaf refers to is on a landscape level. So 15 acres is not a large patch. However; a 15 acre patch of a young even aged forest holds plenty of cover for many nesting\ brooding wildlife. Diversity within a stand beneficial as the stand grows.
Quadrat Sampling & Simpson’s Diversity Index Measure ecological variables (like abundance, species diversity or biomass) is by sampling with quadrats. Quadrats are small, identically-sized plots which are placed randomly over a study site Our Quadrats measured 100 meters by 100 meters
Sustainable Practices for Wildlife Habitat Diversity as DeGraaf refers to is on a landscape level. 15 acres is not a large patch. However; a 15 acre patch of a young even aged forest holds plenty of cover for many nesting\ brooding wildlife. Diversity within a stand beneficial to more wildlife as the stand grows.
How do we make decisions about forests and our use of them? How can we protect this green infrastructure? Who are the resource people and decision-makers? • The ultimate decision lies with the landowner (Private, town, or state • Many private landowners and the state and towns use consulting foresters to inform them about what to do with their forests. • Some local consulting foresters in our town and area are • We interviewed Tom Brule, Mike Maurie of Mt Grace Land Trust and Franklin County forester Scott Sylvester
How do we use forests? What ecosystem services do trees and forests provide to our particular community? • In our community the forests are sustainably logged. • Many people use their logged hardwood like oak and maple for cord wood • Local wood is higher quality than plantation wood that is shipped in from far away. • Using local wood keeps fossil fuel use down which keeps the air cleaner, in turn keeping forests healthier. . • People like Michael Humphries purchase local wood for use in his local woodworking shop.
Multi-Use Mixed forest Tree Farm Initiative
Going forward, how can we best manage our use of the forest in our communities? How can we be involved? • For the future, having a good mixed use forests is the goal. • Listening to professional foresters is a great way to manage the forests sustainably. • We can be involved by advocating for people who are logging unsustainably and not treating the forests properly to get educated of the land by foresters, so that future generations may enjoy the forests monetarily and for their natural service.
How will changing climate affect Massachusetts forests and the ecosystem services they provide? • The trees will be less healthy because of the extremely high levels of CO2 and O3. • Due to less healthy trees, the lumber from them will be of lower quality. • The trees will not live as long because of the pour air quality, making old growth more uncommon. • The forests will migrate to the cooler northern climate when our climate warms, just like they did after the last glaciers left New England.
Highland Pond Nature Trail Solutions?Communithy Service Education Education Urban Parks Shattuck Park Nature Guide
Where You'll Find Us Kleeberg's Sugar House in Greenfield, MA Kleeberg's Sugar House is run by Brian Kleeberg. 343 Adams RoadGreenfield, MA map | farms nearby 3 miles from Greenfield, MA 01301 (413) 834-4333 preferred A little about Kleeberg's Sugar HouseWe tap 2,500 trees in Bernardston, Deerfield and Greenfield. Open to the public. Please call ahead to schedule your visit or order syrup. Find us on Facebook! Honey + Maple Maple Syrup
Whole clearcutting deplete the site resouresPartial havesting (BMP) avoids water quality problems and nutrien loss.
Marketable LumberMass Woodland Cooperative Wood is a preferred material for many of the items we consume in our daily lives. Its many uses include; the daily newspaper, mail-order catalogs, lumber and building materials, furniture, cardboard packaging of consumer products, and in the shipping pallets that almost all of our goods are transported on. Wood consumption in Massachusetts is estimated at over 13 million cubic meters annually but harvests from state timberland amounts to only 300,000 cubic meters. One goal of the MWC is to help Massachusetts become more self-sufficient in it’s consumption of wood products. University of Massachusetts Amherst Department of Resource Economics Working Paper No. 2005-6
Mobile societey = low knowledege and management strategy Much of the re-generated forests of Massachusetts has grown up un-managed. Forest stands are often too densely stocked and contain a high portion of low-grade trees. Land ownership patterns have decreased the average tenure of forest properties. In our increasingly mobile society, property changes ownership more frequently