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Defining stress The Balance

Defining stress The Balance

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Defining stress The Balance

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  1. Defining stressThe Balance • Stress is a stimulus which causes a response • Stimulus can be perceived as positive or negative • The extent of the response is important We can define stress as: “A RESPONSE MADE BY PEOPLE TO DEMANDS MADE UPON THEM”. Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  2. FIGHT OR FLIGHT - BODY CHANGES Brain goes on red alert and prepares body for action Pupils dilate Mouth goes dry Sweating Muscles tense Lungs breathe faster Heart beats faster Blood pressure rises Digestion slows Liver releases glucose Adrenaline and Noradrenalin released Sphincters close Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  3. Physical Signs of Stress Blurred vision Headaches Insomnia Dizziness Trouble in swallowing Asthma Excessive sweating Chest pain Heart and circulation High blood pressure Skin rashes Allergies Baclache Indigestion Ulcers Sexual difficulties Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  4. Physical Reactions Headache Backache Muscle cramp Poor sleep Indigestion Psychological Reactions Fatigue Anxiety Tension Irritability Depression Boredom Inability to concentrate Feelings of unreality Low self-esteem Stress Means “Distress” Causing Certain Reactions Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  5. Behavioural Effects Heavy indulgence in smoking, alcohol, and drugs. Impulsive emotional behaviour. Social Effects Poor relationship with others at home and at work. Inability to fulfil social and family roles. Social isolation. Stress Means “Distress” Causing Certain Reactions Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  6. Stress 20th Century Phenomenon?? • Stress as a response is not new - but the pressures of urban life are! The concept of stress and stress related disease is attributable to the rapid changes in our environment. • The decline of the extended family have added additional stressors to our lives (less support). Loneliness is a powerful stressor. • Poorly developed social skills become a source of personal stress. Both our perceived status and our real status in society can act as stressors, in particular when expectations can not be met. Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  7. Life Events Inventory Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  8. High levels of noise Poor lighting Poor ventilation Overcrowding Vibration Incorrect temperature Toxic fumes and Chemicals Badly designed furniture Open plan offices Poor maintenance Poor canteen facilities Poor childcare facilities Stress-Inducing Factor at WorkEnvironmental Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  9. Repetitious boring work Too much/little work Pace and flow of work Too much/little supervision Lack of direction and decision making Constant sitting Lack of adequate rest breaks Working with VDUs or other machinery Lack of job control Under-utilisation of skills Unexpected, unexplained change Stress-Inducing Factor at WorkJob Design Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  10. Stress-Inducing Factor at WorkContractual • Low pay • Shift work • Excessive hours of overtime • Flexitime • Job insecurity (including temporary / short-time contracts and redundancy Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  11. Stress-Inducing Factor at WorkRelationships • Bad relationships with supervisors/workmate • Sexism/Racism/Ageism (including harassment and discrimination • Customer/Client complaints • Impersonal treatment at work • Lack of communication • Lack of control • Autocratic management styles Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  12. Management Style Plays a Key Role in Reducing and Increasing Stress Autocratic / Low Participation • Encourages interpersonal competition • Rigid • Hierarchy • Impersonal Communication • Decisions made with little or no consultation • Focus on individual achievements • Reliance on procedure and rules • Few opportunities for creativity Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  13. Management Style Plays a Key Role in Reducing and Increasing Stress Democratic / High Involvement • Encourages personal expression • Stresses teamwork • Values creativity • Encourages self-development • Makes joint decisions • Is flexible • Places high value on formal and informal communications Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  14. Cost of Stress • Absenteeism • Poor business relations • Poor productivity • High staff turn over • Conflicts and non-cooperation • Job dissatisfaction • Frequent accidents Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  15. Work-Related Stress Who Suffers from Stress at Work in PDO Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  16. Occupational Health Cases in PDO Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  17. Identified root causes of 34 PDO 'work related stress' cases in 1999 and of 24 cases in 2000Number of cases per job group Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  18. Identified Cases of Work Related Stress of PDO employees in 1999. Number of Cases per Age Group and TROIF per Age Group(Illness Specific) Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  19. What Do We Know of Stressors in PDO Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  20. Identified root causes of 34 PDO 'work related stress' cases in 1999 and of 24 cases in 2000 Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  21. Overview of Responses to 19 Potential Stressors Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  22. Overview of Responses to 19 Potential Stressors Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  23. Stress Survey 2000The important identified significant stressors are; • unexpected situations’, • ‘shortcomings in work of others’, • ‘absence of others’, • ‘working atmosphere’, • ‘annoyance by others’,’ • not being sufficiently trained’, • ‘appreciation of work done’ • ‘unsatisfactory remuneration’ Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  24. Management Role & Practical Actions to Manage Stress Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  25. Role of Line Manager and Supervisor • Understand the human stress response (Module I) • Identify stressors • Eliminate and /or control stressors Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  26. Practical Action to Manage Stress Practical Action • Accept that stress exists • Watch for signs of stress • Bring in practical help or refer • Being willing to listen and to counsel • Identify the stressors, reduce them • Be aware of your personal stress • Avoid sharing your stress Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  27. Practical Action to Manage Stress Listening means Attention, Learning and Understanding It is More than Hearing!!! • No hasty judgments • Show genuine and sincere interest • Let the speaker talk, try not to interrupt • Seek the meaning of specific words • Give feedback • Avoid any showing of emotion • Asks questions for clarification Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  28. Practical Action to Manage Stress Counselling • Be pro-active, don’t wait for the real distress • Show empathy (listening) • Problem solving approach, don’t dictate solutions • Encourage people to develop their own solutions • Don’t become over-involved • Respect confidence • Beyond your scope -advise referral- , but stay interested Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  29. Practical Action to Manage Stress Be Aware of Being a Stressor Yourself !! • Directing Work, Set reasonable targets, Assist staff in time management • Being critical, Constructive approach (A&D) • Managing change Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  30. Practical Action to Manage Stress The Best Advices to Reduce Stress I • Recognize potential stressors environment • Treat symptoms of stress like any other unwelcome information. • Concentrate on what to do • Always be under-committed, reserve time for the unexpected. • Only promise what you can deliver Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  31. Practical Action to Manage Stress The Best Advices to Reduce Stress I • Situation uncontrollable; break it up before it becomes a crisis. • Never get ‘locked in’ disagreement spirals. Better accept you cannot win. • If you ‘stretch’ others , do so knowingly and anticipate the consequences. • Take opportunity to behave rewardingly. Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  32. Different people will find Different ways to cope with stress • Reduce / Avoid Stress. • Training to Meet Stressors. • Developing Resilience. Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  33. Think Positive • If we adopt a negative attitude we are much more likely to suffer than if we retain a sense of faith in our own coping ability. • Taking positive action means you DO have a control about your destiny, you can fight back. • Regaining objectivity is the key to positive thought and action Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  34. More Stress Coping Techniques • Relaxation and breathing control • Express your emotions to mitigate stress (laughing, crying) • Control your anger (discharge anger as quickly as possible -work out etc) • Increase your physical fitness • Choose sensible diet • Get advice from professionals Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens

  35. Ref: 06-10-01-Deutag Haz-ID Title: Toolpusher under stress ZZzzzzz   If it’s not Safe, STOP THE JOB Stress Module II - Dr. P. Boelens