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Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln

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Abraham Lincoln

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  1. Abraham Lincoln • Full Name: Abraham Lincoln (didn’t have a middle name) • He was a moderate Republican • He was the 16th President of the US and served from 1861-1865

  2. Occupational and Educational Background • Had a total of one year of formal education • Gained most of his knowledge from reading • 1846 elected to the House of Representatives • Became one of the most famous lawyers in Illinois • Ran against Stephen A. Douglas or Senate in 1858

  3. Occupational and Educational Background • Ran in election for Vice Presidential nomination for Republican Party 1856 • Nominated for Presidential Candidate in 1860, won this election and was elected President

  4. Significant Cabinet Members • Vice Presidents: Hannibal Hamlin (1860-1865) and Andrew Johnson (1865) • Secretary of State: William H. Seward (1861-1865)

  5. States Admitted to the Union • Kansas 1861 • West Virginia 1863 • Nevada 1864

  6. Presidential Election 1860 Reasons Lincoln Won: He had a message of how a simple farm boy could achieve this, was a common and honest down to earth guy, the Republicans were very popular and were pretty much guaranteed most if not all of the northern electoral votes

  7. Presidential Election 1864 Reasons Why Lincoln Won: He created a larger party with the merging of the Republicans and the War Democrats to form the National Union Party. He had even more support with this larger party and easily won.

  8. Beginning of the War between States -1861 • South Carolina removed itself from the Union • Six more states secede from the Union- Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed by four more, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.  • The 11 states become the Confederate States of America. • Lincoln fought the war primary to preserve the Union. • Significance • War restored Union • War resolved slavery • War led to the reconstruction in South http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html

  9. First Bull Run- 1861 • Public demand forced untried Union troops to advance Confederate troops stationed at Manassas Junction, Virginia. • Initial victory was terminated by confederate reinforcement. • Significance: • The defeat gave the public the real side of the war. • Lincoln realized that the war was difficult to be won http://library.thinkquest.org/J002047F/first_bull_run.htm

  10. Trent Affair-1861 • Charles Wilkes captured two Confederate envoys on the British ship. • United States violated British neutrality. • Significance: • a diplomatic crisis arose between the United States and Great Britain during the Civil War • Almost led to war between already in-warred U.S. and Britain http://www.newsinhistory.com/feature/trent-affair-crisis-during-us-civil-war-great-britain-almost-fights-united-states http://civilwartalk.com/forums/showthread.php?35981-Civil-War-sketches-and-cartoons/page3

  11. Morrill Tariff Act-1861 • an American protective tariff law adopted on March 2, 1861. • Justin Morrill of Vermont drafted the act with Henry C. Carey. • The Tariff raised rates to protect industries and the high wages of industrial workers. • Higher rate of tariff to raise the war. • Significance • Moderately finance the war • Effectively increased the revenue comparing to that of 1860. http://www.ashevilletribune.com/archives/censored-truths/Morrill%20Tariff.html

  12. Battle of Monitor and Merrimac-1862 Battle of Monitor and Merrimac-1862 • a naval battle of the American Civil War, the first fight between two ironclad warships. • Confederate Ship CSS Virginia wrecked many wooden warships until the Monitor arrived on the second day. • USS Monitor VS. CSS Virginia (former USS Merrimac) • Significance • The first two iron ships were used in war • Introduce the new naval force to the world. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Battle_of_Monitor_and_Merrimack http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Battle_of_Monitor_and_Merrimack

  13. Morrill Land Grant College Act • transformed higher education and was responsible for the establishment of numerous colleges across the country. • gave each state 30,000 acres of public land for each Senator and Representative. • Significance • Promote access for ordinary people to higher education. • Science and Education started gaining recognition http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/morrill.html

  14. Homestead Act-1862 • Any U.S. citizen who had never borne arms against the U.S. Government could file an application claiming land. • Significance and impact • Loopholes were found in the land claiming system. • Investigators were often susceptible to bribery. http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/

  15. Greenbacks issued under Legal Tender Act • Issue flat paper money that depreciates to raise the war without taxation. • Significance • Greenbacks ended the trading in gold and silver. • And established uniformed currency • Majorly finance the war http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/legal-tender-act-passed

  16. Confederacy enacts the first conscription law in U.S. History-1862 • white men eighteen to thirty-five years of age were eligible for a three-year service under the draft. • Significance: • The draft was weakened by its exemptions for substitution. • It was the first conscription law in U.S. history http://www.etymonline.com/cw/draft.htm

  17. Fort Donelson • was a major victory for the North • 13,000 Confederates surrendered • Grant became a Northern hero and was tagged with the nickname of "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.   • Significance • Ensured that Kentucky would stay with the Union • Grant was promoted to become a major general http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1862/battle-fort-donelson.htm

  18. Battle of Shiloh • named after a church on the battlefield. • Grant with some 40,000 men moved down the Tennessee River • The Confederate, Johnston and Beauregard, struck Grant with their army before reinforcement arrived. • Grant held his lines and Johnston was killed. • With reinforcement, Grant gained victory. • Significance • Both sides realized that civil would not end easily • Both side suffered major death http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html

  19. Antietam • In September 1862 Lee invaded Maryland. • Jackson went to capture Harper's Ferry • Lee took the other division to Sharpsburg • Lee's 40,000 men suffered great losses and retreated to Virginia. • Significance • Gave Lincoln the chance to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation by the victory. http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html http://www.wpclipart.com/American_History/civil_war/Antietam/Antietam_sunken_road_1.png.html

  20. Fredericksburg • Ambrose E. Burnside replaced McClellan • Ambrose E. Burnside attacked Lee at Fredericksburg • Burnside suffered nearly 13,000 casualties • Significance • Lincoln realized that the war would not end as quickly as Lincoln once regarded. • Burnside was replaced by General Hook http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html

  21. Murfreesboro • Lincoln replaced Buell with General William S. Rosecrans. • highest casualty rate of the war, with each side losing about a third of its men. • Significance • Both sides suffered huge casualties http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html http://www.murfreesboropost.com/news.php?viewStory=5694

  22. Emancipation Proclamation-1863 • declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." • Lincoln was dedicated to restoring the Union and not ending slavery entirely • supported the concept of compensated emancipation. • Significance • Partially ended slavery • The economy shift caused difficulties of reconstruction after the war in South http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/inside.asp?ID=35&subjectID=3

  23. Enrollment Act • The decision to allow men to avoid the draft by paying $300 to hire a substitute • Significance • accusation that this was a rich man's war and a poor man's fight.  • Result in Draft Riot worst in NYC http://www.jcs-group.com/military/war1861civil/enrollment.html

  24. Battle of Vicksburg • General Ulysses S. Grant drove the confederate army crossed the Mississippi river • Without reinforcement, Vicksburg fell • Significance • The North had control of the Mississippi River • A Navy to blockade sea ports • the North had an encirclement around the confederacy • Turning point of the war http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html

  25. Battle of Gettysburg • Lee brought his army up the Shenandoah Valley • General George G. Meade was in command of the Union troops. • 85,000 men fought a Southern army of about 65,000 • Significance • Lee lost all the troop strength to launch another major offensive • Turning point of the war http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html

  26. Draft Riots in New York City • the largest civil insurrection in America besides the Civil War • Caused by the unfair draft • blacks murdered on the streets • The military suppressed the mob • Impct/significance • 120 were killed; 8000 were wounded • 1-3 million loss • Support from NY continued in war http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/317749.html http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Images/Chicago/0226317749.gif

  27. National Banking Act • established a system of nationally chartered banks  • amended to require the taxation of state currencies • Significance • created a uniformed national currency http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/grossman.banking.history.us.civil.war.wwii

  28. Battle of Chancellorsville • Hooker replaced Burnside as commander of the Army • Lee with 60000 men stayed at Fredericksburg • Hooker initially attacked successfully and then he withdrew his troops to Chancellorsville • Next day, Stonewall Jackson to counter attack • Jackson died on May 10. • Significance • South lost a great General • Considered to be Lee’s greatest victory in saving the South http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSccaxWki2Imr4lD0r0YZYQKo240MejpCq0Kzu_F252ibqz1EPG

  29. Battle of Chickamauga • major Southern victory trapped Rosecrans • But failed to take advantage • Significance • South could have won a major victory, but it let the chance slip. http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html

  30. Battle of Missionary Ridge • A Union victory with 12,485 casualties of which 6,670 were Confederate soldiers. • Grant assaulted Missionary Ridge and defeated the Confederate Army of Tennessee • Significance • Set base for Sherman's 1864 Atlanta Campaign http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_missionary_ridge.html

  31. Wade Davis Bill • how the Union would be reunited if the North won the Civil War • 50% percent of a state’s white males take a loyalty oath • states recognized the “permanent freedom of slaves.” and give blacks the right to vote. • Abraham Lincoln killed the bill • Significance • The bill discussed the strict reconstruction plan, but Lincoln pocket vetoed it, so it was never enacted. http://ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=37

  32. Sand Creek Massacre • a 700-man force of Colorado militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho • killed and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Indians, about two-thirds of whom were women and children. • Significance • disrupted the traditional Cheyenne power structure • Heavy life loss http://www.lastoftheindependents.com/sandcreek.htm http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0a/Mochi_Southern_Cheyenne.jpg/220px-Mochi_Southern_Cheyenne.jpg

  33. Atlanta Campaign • was a series of battles fought  throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta • In May, William T. Sherman invaded Georgia from the victory of Chattanooga • In July John Bell Hood replaced Johnston • Atlanta fell on September 2 • Significance • It cut off Confederates’ main supply line • North confirmed the victory http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/41067/Atlanta-Campaign

  34. Wilderness Campaign • Grant had superior forces, supply lines, and replacement troops over Lee • Heavy losses failed to halt Grant’s progress southward. • Significance • Started overland campaign • Contributed to the eventual south’s downfall http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html

  35. The siege of Petersburg • Grant launched the siege of Petersburg. • Grant finished other resistance force. • Forced Lee's Virginia army with months of trench warfare. • Significance • Grant realized that the end of the war was definite. http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/majorcw.html

  36. Hampton Road Conference • informal, unsuccessful peace talks • Lincoln offered peace treaties of disbanding of Confederate troops, emancipation of the slaves, and a reunion of the nation • The talk failed. • Significance • The war continued http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/253803/Hampton-Roads-Conference

  37. Surrender at the city of Appomattox Courthouse • on April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia. • Lee’s men were not prosecuted for treason. • Generous peace conditions • 175,000 Confederates still remained in the field • significance • Strength of the Confederacy was fading • War was coming to an end http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/appomatx.htm

  38. Freedmen’s Bureau established • Government agency to aid freedmen (freed slaves) • They built hospitals for the freed slaves • More than 1,000 negro schools were built  • Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard was appointed to head the agency.  • Congress discontinued the Freedmen's Bureau in 1872. • Significance • Promoted freedom, education, and public welfare • Helped southern reconstruction http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/SlaveryAndEmancipation/freedmensbureau.html

  39. Lincoln’s Assassination • First president to be assassinated • 5 days after grant Robert Lee surrendered • Larger conspiracy to kill Andrew Johnson, William H. Seward failed. http://www.history.com/topics/abraham-lincoln-assassination

  40. Criticism and praise • “it is impossible not to feel that it was an evil day both for America and the world, when he was chosen president of the United States". --British News Paper Guardian, 1862 • "Of his rule we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty” -- --British News Paper Guardian, 1965 • “rugged rail-splitter and humble lawyer helped heal the bloody divisions of Civil War. “ --Barack Obama • “One of the Greatest Presidents in American History.” ---Billy Wu

  41. Contributions • Preserved the Union • Freed the slaves • Boosted American Industries • Promoted Education • Established uniformed paper currency • Failed to finish racism • Started and ended Civil War

  42. By Billy Wu and Colin Parts