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# 4.5 Integration by Substitution

4.5 Integration by Substitution. &quot;Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton asked why.&quot; -– Bernard Baruch . Objective. To integrate by using u-substitution. 2 ways…. Pattern recognition Change in variables Both use u-substitution… one mentally and one written out. Pattern recognition.

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## 4.5 Integration by Substitution

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1. 4.5 Integration by Substitution "Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton asked why." -– Bernard Baruch

2. Objective • To integrate by using u-substitution

3. 2 ways… • Pattern recognition • Change in variables • Both use u-substitution… one mentally and one written out

4. Pattern recognition • Chain rule: • Antiderivative of chain rule:

5. Antidifferentiation of a Composite Function • Let g be a function whose range is an interval I and let f be a function that is continuous on I. If g is differentiable on its domain and F is an antiderivative of f on I then…

6. In other words…. • Integral of f(u)du where u is the inside function and du is the derivative of the inside function… If u = g(x), then du = g’(x)dx and

7. Recognizing patterns…

8. What about… What is our constant multiple rule?

9. REMEMBER • The contant multiple rule only applies to constants!!!!! • You CANNOT multiply and divide by a variable and then move the variable outside the integral sign. For instance…

10. In summary… • Pattern recognition: • Look for inside and outside functions in integral • Determine what u and du would be • Take integral • Check by taking the derivative!

11. Change of Variables

12. Another example

13. A third example

14. Guidelines for making a change of variables • 1. Choose a u = g(x) • 2. Compute du • 3. Rewrite the integral in terms of u • 4. Evalute the integral in terms of u • 5. Replace u by g(x) • 6. Check your answer by differentiating

15. Try…

16. The General Power rule for Integration • If g is a differentiable function of x, then • Equivalently, if u = g(x), then

17. Change of variables for definite integrals • Thm: If the function u = g(x) has a continuous derivative on the closed interval [a,b] and f is continuous on the range of g, then

18. First way…

19. Second way…

20. Another example (way 1)

21. Way 2…

22. Even and Odd functions • Let f be integrable on the closed interval [-a,a] • If f is an even function, then • If f is an odd function then

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