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‘‘DRY EYE’’ PowerPoint Presentation
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‘‘DRY EYE’’

‘‘DRY EYE’’

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‘‘DRY EYE’’

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  1. ‘‘DRY EYE’’

  2. Dry Eye • Dry eye is a disease of the ocular surface attributable to different disturbances of the natural function and protective mechanisms of the external eye, leading to anunstable tear filmduring the open eye state. Surv Ophthalmol 2001; 45(2), S199-202

  3. Dry Eye: Prevalence Surv Ophthalmol; 45(2): S203-S210

  4. Dry Eye : Prevalence • Beaver Dam study • N=3722 • 3 year study (1993-1995) • Age = 48-91 years (Mean age 65 + 10 years) • Men = 43%, Women = 57% Arch Oph 2000, 118:1264-1268

  5. Prevalence of dry eye increases significantly with age Dry eye: Prevalence

  6. Dry eye: Prevalence Prevalence of dry eye is higher in women

  7. Increasing prevalence of dry eye • Increasing life-span of the population • Expansion of consumption of medications • Increase in number of people wearing contact lenses • Increase in computer usage. • Increase in number of patients undergoing LASIK. • Increase in pollution…….

  8. Symptoms • Irritation • Redness • Burning/ Stinging • Itchy eyes • Sandy- gritty feeling (foreign body sensation) • Blurred vision • Tearing • Contact lens intolerance. • Increased frequency of blinking • Mucous discharge. • Photophobia (less frequent symptom) • Symptoms worsen in windy or air-conditioned environments. • As day progresses. • After prolonged reading, working on computers Supl P&T Digest 2003, 28(12), 1-45

  9. Impact of dry eye symptoms on daily life Suppl P & T 2003; 28(12) 1-45

  10. Dry eye may be sight-threatening Bacterial Keratitis Corneal ulcer

  11. Dry Eye Affects Quality of Life

  12. DRY EYE : Classification According to the National Eye Institute DRY EYE Aqueous tear deficiency (ATD) (Tear deficient dry eye) keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) (Most common) Evaporative tear deficiency (ETD) (Evaporative dry eye) Clin Exp Optom 2001; 84: 1: 4-18, Surv Oph 2001: 45, S203-S210

  13. Dry Eye: Main Causes Clin Exp Optom 2001; 84: 1: 4-18

  14. Dry Eye: Multifactorial nature Elderly woman Taking glaucoma medications Post menopausal Contact lens user Working for long hours in front of computer Air-conditioned environment

  15. Tear deficient dry eye Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) • Sjogrens: Autoimmune disorder with a triad of dry mouth, dry eye and arthritis • Non-Sjogrens • Ageing – Gradual deterioration of lacrimal gland tissue occurs with ageing • Menopause – At the time of menopause, levels of androgens drop down • Neurotrophic keratitis – Corneal sensitivity decreases after LASIK, PRK, contact lens wear and diabetes • Medicamentosa – Anti histamines, anti-depressants, • beta blockers • Cicatricial Diseases – Trachoma, chemical burns, Stevens Johnson syndrome Ref: Clin. Exp. Optom 2001: 84: 1:4-18 J. Am. Optom Assoc. 1991; 62: 187-199 Suppl P and T Digest 2003; 28(2): 1-45

  16. EVAPORATIVE DRY DISEASE • Meibomian gland disease: Most prevalent (65%). Obstruction of meibomian gland • Lid surfacing anomalies: Lid closure affected, blinking affected • Ocular surface toxicity: Long term use of topical antiglaucoma medications, preservatives like BAK • Contact lens related • Allergy

  17. Chronic Allergy • Dry eye is commonly associated with chronic allergic conjunctivitis. • An allergic history has been reported by 36% of dry eye patients. • Chronic allergy results in loss of goblet cells, destabilization of the tear film & damage to ocular surface. • VKC is associated with 38% incidence of dry eye. Surv Oph 2001, 45(2), S211-20

  18. Abnormal blinking pattern • Extensions of interblink period due to intense concentration due to close work and computer work concentration leads to drying of ocular surface. • Normal blink rate : 15 times/min • Working on computer: 5 times/min Clin Exp Optom 2001; 84: 1: 4-18

  19. Environmental Influences • Ocular irritation, poor tear film stability and ocular surface desiccation is associated with poor indoor air quality in temperature controlled office environments • 35-48% of individuals working in such environments are affected. • Dry climate • Growing air pollution.

  20. McMonnies’ Questionnaire Do you experience any of the following eye symptoms? Soreness Scratchiness Dryness Grittiness Burning Symptoms “often” or “constantly” Eyes unusually sensitive to cigarette smoke, smog, air conditioning, central heating? Do you suffer from arthritis? Do you suffer from thyroid abnormality? Eye irritation upon awakening? Cornea 2002, 21(7), 664-670

  21. Rose Bengal staining • Rose Bengal solution 1% placed into the conjunctival sac. • After a wait of 2 mins, degree of rose bengal staining on bulbar conjunctiva and cornea is quantitated by microscopic exam. • Stains devitalized cells. • Also stains mucous strands (very often present in KCS) J Am Optom Assoc 1991, 62:187-199

  22. Rose Bengal staining inEarly, Moderate and Late KCS EARLY MODERATE LATE

  23. Schirmer test • Without Anesthesia • Measures Reflex Tear Secretion (dry eye = < 6mm wetting) • With Anesthesia • Measures Basal Tear Secretion (dry eye =< 3mm wetting)

  24. Impression cytology • Removal of superficial layers of conjunctival epithelium • Application of circular discs of cellulose acetate filter paper for a certain period of time. • Obtained specimen observed under microscope for signs and symptoms of squamous metaplasia or presence of inflammatory cells. J Am Optom Assoc 1991, 62: 187-99

  25. Dry Eye: Management

  26. Management of Dry Eye Late KCS • Topical corticosteroids – fluorometholone, loteprednol (short-term) • Topical androgen • Cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion

  27. Tear substitutes:benefits Tear substitutes are the mainstay of therapy for dry eye. • Provide adequate relief • Increase humidity at the ocular surface and improve lubrication. • Smooth the ocular surface leading to improved vision. • Intra/post-operative use has shown to help restore ocular surface after refractive surgery. • Improve patients’ quality of life. Highlights ophthalmol Int Ophthalmol Clin 1991, 31: 83-90

  28. Thank you