Ancient China What you need to know
The Geography of China. located in South Asia. The capital of China is Beijing. About twelve million people living in Beijing. Declared was King Wu. beijing is located in the northeastern part of China.
I. Physical Geography • What physical features make up most of China? • Mountains • Rivers • Plains • Plateaus • Deserts
A. China’s Mountains • The highest mountains are in the west. • Himalayas run along China’s southwestern border, dividing China from Nepal. • The highest peak of the Himalayas (and in the world) is • Mount Everest—29, 035 feet.
This is a view of Mount Everest as taken from the point of view of a climber.
A. Mountains, Cont. • Plateau of Tibet • Spreads across ¼ of China’s land • Highest plateau on Earth • Nicknamed “Roof of the World.”
B. China’s Great Rivers • Three Great Rivers are located in China • Huang He (hwahng huh) • Chang Jian (chahngjyahng) • Xi Jian (sheejyahng) • They all start in the highlands and flow east.
B. China’s Great Rivers, cont. • Xi Jiang is the southernmost. • The Chang Jiang is north of Xi Jiang and winds across China. • It is China’s longest river at over 3,400 miles.
3. Huang He River • The Huang He is the most northern river in China. • Nicknamed “Yellow River” because of the fine silt that covers the plains along parts of the river. • The muddiest river in the world!
3. Huang He River, cont. • It begins in the Plateau of Tibet. • Runs east through the North China Plain, and often overflows. • Also nicknamed “China’s Sorrow” because of the thousands of lives lost in its floods.
C. China’s Deserts • There are two large deserts spread across China. 1.Taklimakan (Tah-kluh-muh-KAHN) • Covers northwestern China • It has an east-west length of about 600 miles • One of the world’s largest sandy deserts • In the spring it experiences dust storms with the strength of hurricanes, lifting thedust as high as 13,000 feet in the air!
C. China’s Deserts, cont. 2. The Gobi (GOH-bee) desert is in northern China. • In Mongolian “Gobi” means waterless place. • This desert’s dryness and temperatures are very harsh. • Summer—113 F • Winter -40 F • It is approximately 1,423 miles from end to end.
Hsia Dynasty 2205-1027 BCE
“Huangdi” – Emperor • The “Yellow Emperor.” • Legend has it that he ruled for over 100 years. • Associated with the invention of wheeled vehicles, ships, armor, pottery, and silk-making.
Emperor Fuxi • Mythical Hsia ruler. • Taught the Chinese how to read and write, according to legend.
II. Ancient China--Overview A. Foundations of Chinese Civilization • The Chinese are known for many great inventions. • Over the course of thousands of years, the Chinese have built the longest-lasting culture in the world. • As early as 5,000 b.c., Chinese people lived in the fertile river valley of the Huang He. • In the 1700’s b.c., their lives changed drastically when different groups of people invaded their land.
Shang Dynasty 1766-1027 BCE
What is the Shang Dynasty? The Shang Dynasty is known to be the first dynasty. The Shang Dynasty is a dynasty that lasted from 1760 B.C. to 1500 B.C. People grew grains like millet and rice. People from the Shang Dynasty also raised animals. During this time people used silk and flax to make clothes. A lot of bronze was used during this period of time. The people used bronze to make many kinds of tools, cups, and weapons, as well as trade goods. Thousands of years ago the capital of a shang settlement was anyang. During the Shang Dynasty some kind of bones were used to predict the future, they were called oracle bones. Rituals were important to the shang people . They usually wrote questions on turtle, oxen, and deer. They ask questions like what type of crops to plant or when to travel or hunt. Next they heated the shells or bones. after that they looked for any cracks. This helped the shang people make predictions about the future.
II. Ancient China—Overview, cont. 1. Shang • First invaders to Huang He river valley @1700 b.c. • Established China’s first permanent, organized civilization • Took over rule for most of China’s history, and ruled by dynasties • Definition—family of rulers • Some reigns last 15, some 100 years • Examples of dynasty names?
II. Ancient China—Overview, cont. 2. Mongol Rule • A.D. 1200’s China’s greatest fear came true! • Foreign invaders conquered China • Mongols invaded China in 1211 • Led by Genghis Khan and later his grandson, Kublai Khan • 1279, Kublai Khan conquered China’s Song (sung) dynasty • Founded the Yuan dynasty in its place • Established China’s capital city at Ta-tu
The Evolution of ChineseWriting during the Shang Pictographs Semantic-Phonetics
What is the Bronze Age? period in which tools and weapons were made of bronze.Not only was bronze used for tools and weapons it was also used for making cups as well as trade goods. Bronze was made by melting together copper and a small amount of tin. The Bronze Age started during the Shang Dynasty.The Shang Dynasty also used bronze to make bronze vessels to cook their food,
Axe Scepter – 1100 BCE - jade Ceremonial Dagger – 1028 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1027 - 256 BCE
what is the zhou dynasty? from west of the huang's great river bend. In 1027 b.c., a zhou leader’s army conquered the armies of the last shang ruler. Lasting for 800+ years the zhou dynasty was the longest dynasty in ancient china. The earlier period was called western zhou. In western zhou most people were farmers that grew rice, beans, and fruit. Some were slaves . Most of the time women harvested the crops. Silk was very important to the economy.
“T’ien Ming” The Mandate of Heaven • The leader must lead by ability and virtue. • The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations. • The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.
II. Ancient China—Overview, cont. 3. The Ming Dynasty • War broke out among the leaders of the Yuan dynasty • Why do you think this happened? • This weakened the dynasty to the point that another dynasty (Ming) was able to take over
3. The Ming Dynasty, cont. • Ming founder, Zhu Yuanzhang (jooyoo-ahn-jang) was called the Hongwu emperor (which means “vast military power”), because of his strong military success. • During battles, he won the Yunnan province from the Mongols • This unified the region that is China today.
3. The Ming Dynasty, cont. • Upon Hongwu’s death, one of his grandson’s took over rule. • He is best known for rebuilding the Yuan capital and naming it Beijing. • He had a huge palace constructed in the city which was known as the Forbidden City • This was because only the emperor, his family, and select officials could enter it. • Ming Dynasty ended in 1644 when the Manchu’s attacked and established China’s last dynasty, the Qing who ruled until A.D. 1911!
What is the Han dynasty? The Han Dynasty started in 206b.c. and lasted to a.d.220. The first ruler of the hand dynasty called himself Han Gaozu which means high ancestor. After Han Gaozu ruled a man named wudi became emperor. he ruled about 141 to 87b.c. Wu Di was a powerful ruler,. He took away power from that challenged him .he also built many roads to improve transportation . The first complete history book on china was written by a historian named SimaQian.
The Ch’in or Quin Dynasty • The Quin Dynasty lasted for about 20 yrs, ending in 206b.c. • The 1st emperor was Shi Haungdi. • became ruler in 238B.C. • Stated his dynasty would rule for 10,000 generations. • was a great builder, ordered for the Great Wall to be built. The Great Wall is one of the largest engineering projects in world history. • Quin was divided into 36 provinces which means political division. • People felt persecuted because the government to control what people talked about and studied. The people wanted freedom.
terra cotta warriors The terra cotta warriors are known to be monuments of actual warriors. Terra cotta warriors were built to guard the tomb of Shi Gaungdi which was carved into the side of a mountain. The army contained more than 6,000 life-sized warrior statue None of the warriors were alike.The terra cotta are very important to Chin because they protect the tomb of Shi Gaungdi. Terra cotta warriors keep robbers and other people away from the tomb.There are also arrows on the walls ready to attack if anybody dared to go inside.