NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. • Advance civil rights. • Black voter registration. • Legislative and legal maneuvering. • Instrumental in Brown.
“Sit-in” Movement • Woolworth’s lunch counter, Montgomery, Alabama. • The movement spread quickly. • Boycott as weapon. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Southern black students. No segregation, equality, and voter registration.
Why Birmingham? • Largest almost exclusively segregated city in the South. • Bus Boycott. • Freedom Riders. • Birmingham Bombing. Four small girls killed. The Klan goes to war.
March, 1963. “I have a dream.” 200,000 demonstrators in a peaceful march. “March on Washington”
Gave the gov’t more powers of enforcement in school desegregation cases. Prohibited racial discrimination in all kinds of public accommodations and employment. 1964 Civil Rights Act
Malcolm X. Movement away from King’s philosophy. Black Panthers. Bobby Seale, Huey Newton, Stokely Carmicheal. Black power