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Overview of COSY plans and activities

Overview of COSY plans and activities. January 11, 2013 Frank Rathmann srEDM collaboration meeting, Brookhaven, USA. Outline. Introduction Electric Dipole Moments Physics Impact Charged particle EDM searches

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Overview of COSY plans and activities

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  1. Overview of COSY plans and activities January 11, 2013 Frank Rathmann srEDM collaboration meeting, Brookhaven, USA

  2. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

  3. Introduction: The bigchallenges Conventional HEP wisdom, but there is more than that … Overview of COSY plans and activities

  4. Introduction: Physics Frontiers Search for theoriginof mass („Higgs“), SUSY Secrets of neutrinos Energy Intensity Frontiers of Physical Sciences Cosmic Complexity Quest for „Dark Matter“ and „Dark Energy“ Precision (In-)stability of the proton Overview of COSY plans and activities

  5. Introduction: Precision Frontier ESPP, Cracow, September 2012 A most promising additional frontier: Precision Overview of COSY plans and activities

  6. Introduction: Precision Frontier Example: Neutron (nEDM) Adaptedfrom: Nature, Vol 482 (2012) Search forElectric Dipole Moments (EDM) of fundamental particles Overview of COSY plans and activities

  7. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

  8. Physics: Fundamental Particles Charge symmetricNoEDM () : MDM : EDM Do particles(e.g., electron, nucleon) have an EDM? Overview of COSY plans and activities

  9. EDMs: DiscreteSymmetries Not Charge symmetric (aligned w/ spin) Permanent EDMs violate P and T. Assuming CPT to hold, CPviolated also. Overview of COSY plans and activities

  10. EDMs: Whyis CPV so interesting? • CPV in the SM points to physics we do not understand • CPV is highly sensitive to physics beyond the SM (New Physics) • CPV is accessible to a wide range of experiments • New source of CPV beyond the SM required for baryogenesis Physicsbeyondthe Standard Model (BSM) Overview of COSY plans and activities

  11. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

  12. Physics:Whatcausedthe Baryon asymmetry? Carina Nebula: Largest-seen star-birth regions in the galaxy Whathappenedtothe antimatter? Sakharov (1967): Three conditions for baryogenesis B number conservation violated sufficiently strongly C and CP violated, B and anti-Bs with different rates Evolution of universe outside thermal equilibrium The mysteryofthemissing antimatter (the puzzle ofourexistence) Overview of COSY plans and activities

  13. Physics: Potential of EDMs N. Arkani-Hamed (IAS, Princeton) atIntensityFrontier WS, USA (2011) Overview of COSY plans and activities

  14. Physics: Potential of EDMs G. Isidoriat ESPP Open Symposium, Cracow (Sept. 2012) Overview of COSY plans and activities

  15. Physics: Potential of EDMs J.M. Pendlebury: „nEDMhaskilledmoretheoriesthananyothersingleexpt.“ Overview of COSY plans and activities

  16. Physics: Limits for Electric Dipole Moments EDM searches– onlyupperlimitsyet(in ) Huge efforts underway worldwide to improve limits / find EDMs Overview of COSY plans and activities

  17. Physics: Ongoing/plannedSearches new P. Harris, K. Kirch … A huge worldwide effort Overview of COSY plans and activities

  18. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

  19. Principle: Frozen spin Method Fortransverseelectricandmagneticfields in a ring ( ), anomalousspin precession isdescribedbyThomas-BMT equation: x Magic condition: Spin alongmomentumvector Foranysignof, in a combinedelectricandmagneticmachine 2. For(protons) in an all electric ring (magic)  Magic rings tomeasure EDMs offreechargeparticles Overview of COSY plans and activities

  20. Principle: Rings forsrEDMsearches • Place particles in a storage ring • Alignspinalongmomentum („Freeze“ horizontal spinprecession) • Search for time developmentofverticalpolarization New Methodtomeasure EDMs offreechargeparticles: Magic rings withspinfrozenalongmomentum Overview of COSY plans and activities

  21. EDMs: Storage ring projects pEDM in all electric ring at BNL Jülich, focus on deuterons, or a combinedmachine orat FNAL (fromR. Talman) CW and CCW propagatingbeams (from A. Lehrach) Twoprojects: US (BNL or FNAL) andEurope (FZJ) Overview of COSY plans and activities

  22. Beat systematics: BNL Proposal 2 beamssimultaneouslyrotating in an all electricring (cw, ccw) CW & CCW beams cancels systematic effects Status: ApprovedBNL-Proposal Submittedto DOE FNAL interest! Goal forprotons Manytechnologicalchallengesneedtobemet Overview of COSY plans and activities

  23. Principle: Magic Storage ring A magicstorage ring forprotons (electrostatic), deuterons, … B Possible tomeasure, , usingONEmachinewithm Overview of COSY plans and activities

  24. CCW & CCW withmagneticfield:Richard Talmansconceptfor a Jülich all-in-onemachine Iron-free, current-only, magnetic bending, eliminates hysteresis B A Configurationgeneratesclose-to-perfectverticalBfield B A Overview of COSY plans and activities

  25. Magic ring: Jülich all-in-onemachine(R. Talmansconcept) B Maximum achievablefieldofcoppermagnets T. VerycompactmachinespossibleforsrEDMsearches Overview of COSY plans and activities

  26. EDMs – Sensitivity Reach EDM search in charged baryon (systems) pEDM dEDM Adaptedfrom: Nature, Vol 482 (2012) NodirectmeasurementsforprotonanddeuteronEDM yet ! Overview of COSY plans and activities

  27. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

  28. srEDMsearches: Technogicalchallenges • Chargedparticle EDM searchesrequiredevelopmentof a newclassof high-precisionmachineswithmainlyelectricfieldsforbendingandfocussing. • Other topics: • Electric fieldgradients • Spin coherence time • Continuous polarimetry • Beam positioning • Spin tracking These issues must beaddressedexperimentallyatexistingfacilities Overview of COSY plans and activities

  29. Challenge: Electric field for magic rings Rfieldonly Challenge toproduce large electricfieldgradients Overview of COSY plans and activities

  30. Challenge: Niobium electrodes DPP stainlesssteel fine-grainNb Show oneslide on JLAB data HV devices large-grainNb single-crystalNb large-grainNb Large-grainNbatplateseparationof a few cm yields ~20 MV/m Overview of COSY plans and activities

  31. “spin closed orbit vector” makes one turn “spin tune” if ║ ring stable polarization A Challenge: Spin coherence time Spin closedorbit one particle with magnetic moment Overview of COSY plans and activities

  32. Challenge: Spin coherence time Weusuallydon‘tworryaboutcoherenceofspinsalong Polarization not affected! Atinjection all spinvectorsaligned (coherent) After some time, spinvectorsget out ofphaseandfullypopulatethecone Situation very different, whenyou deal withmachineswithfrozenspin. Longitudinal polarizationvanishes! Atinjection all spinvectorsaligned Later, spinvectorsare out ofphase in the horizontal plane In an EDM machine with frozen spin, observation time is limited. Overview of COSY plans and activities

  33. Challenge:SCT stimates (N.N. Nikolaev) Onesourceofspincoherencearerandomvariationsofthespin tune due tothemomentumspread in the beam and israndomizedby e.g., electroncooling Estimate: Spin coherence time for deuterons may be 𝟏𝟎𝟎× larger than for protons Overview of COSY plans and activities

  34. EDM at COSY: COolerSYnchrotron Cooler andstorage ring for(polarized)protonsanddeuterons Phase space cooledinternal & extractedbeams COSY … the spin-physics machine for hadron physics … an ideal startingpoint for a srEDMsearch Injector cyclotron Overview of COSY plans and activities

  35. Challenge: First measurementof SCT 2011 Test measurementsat COSY Polarimetry: Spin coherence time: from Ed Stephenson and Greta Guidoboni decoherence time oscillation capture Overview of COSY plans and activities

  36. Challenge: SCT recentachievements Resultfrom 2012 run from Ed Stephenson and Greta Guidoboni Excellentprogresstowardsthe SCT goalforpEDM:s Overview of COSY plans and activities

  37. Challenge: Polarimetry Beam polarimetry atthe ppm levelachievedfordeuteronbeams Overview of COSY plans and activities

  38. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

  39. Precursorexperiments: RF methods Methodsbased on makingthespinprecession in themachine resonant withtheorbitmotion Twoways: Use an RF devicethatoperates on someharmonicsofthespinprecessionfrequency Operate ring on an imperfectionresonance Useexistingmagneticmachinesforfirstdirect EDM measurements Overview of COSY plans and activities

  40. Precursorexperiments: ResonanceMethodwith „magic“ RF Wien filter Avoidscoherent betatron oscillationsof beam. Radial RF-E andvertical RF-B fieldstoobservespinrotation due to EDM Approach pursuedfor a firstdirectmeasurementat COSY.  „Magic RF Wien Filter“no Lorentz force IndirectEDM effect Tiltofprecession plane due to EDM RF E(B)-field In-plane polarization Observable: Accumulationofverticalpolarizationduringspincoherence time stored d Polarimeter (dpelastic) • Statistical sensitivityfor in therange to rangepossible. • Alignmentandfieldstabilityof ring magnets • Imperfectionof RF-E(B) flipper Overview of COSY plans and activities

  41. Precursorexperiments: ResonanceMethodfordeuteronsat COSY Parameters: beam energy assumed EDM E-field • EDM effect accumulates in Overview of COSY plans and activities

  42. Precursorexperiments: ResonanceMethodfordeuteronsat COSY Parameters: beam energy assumed EDM E-field EDM effectaccumulates in Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodofyields a sizeable. Overview of COSY plans and activities

  43. Precursorexperiments: Resonance EDM measurementwith a static Wien filter Machineisoperated on an imperfectionspinresonanceat withoutstatic WF Spin rotation in phasewithorbitmotion Similaraccumulationof EDM signal, systematicsmoredifficult, strengthofimperfectionresonance must besuppressedbyclosed-orbit corrections. Overview of COSY plans and activities

  44. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

  45. New collaborationestablished In 2012, the JEDI collaboration was founded (~80 members) Jülich ElectricDipole Moment Investigations Spokespersons: Andreas Lehrach (Jülich) Jörg Pretz (RWTH Aachen) F.R. (Jülich) Overview of COSY plans and activities

  46. Events in 2013 • JARA-FAME Gründungsveranstaltung • Samuel C. C. Ting on the AMS-Experiment at ISS • January 17, 2013 • JEDI collaborationmeetingMarch 13&14, 2013 • Ferrara International School NiccolòCabeo2013Physicsbeyondthestandardmodel:theprecisionfrontierMay, 20-24 2013, IUSS, Ferrara (Italy) • eEDMmeetingmiddleoftheyear • Meeting on Spin tracking in storage rings • shalltakeplaceat BNL • When? Overview of COSY plans and activities

  47. New idea B By appropriatechoiceofmagneticfield, thespinvectorrotates fast frequenciesoftheorder kHz Jülich hasexpertise in SQUIDs, peoplesay, state-of-theartmeasurementsallowforis ( This wouldrevolutionizethewayweconceive EDM (and in generalpolarization) experiments, becausefrequenciesbecomedirectlymeasureable. Ivan Koops spin-wheel Overview of COSY plans and activities

  48. Howthiswouldwork? Frequency Find thevalueof B where spinprecessionfrequencydisappears B field see Ivan Koops report on SQUID polarimetry (toappear on theJuelichelog) Overview of COSY plans and activities

  49. New Idea: Directmeasurementofelectron EDM • Nobody knowswherethe CPV ishiding, maywellbe in theleptonicsector • Needs a dedicated R&D effort • Veryattractive: • Tests mostingredientsofsrEDMexperiments • Coulddevelopinto a long-term project • Polarimetry is an issue • Goal: Bill Morse: , , Overview of COSY plans and activities

  50. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Physics Impact • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News andnewideas • Projects andstudents • Timeline • Conclusion Overview of COSY plans and activities

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