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The Arabian Peninsula and the Growth of Islam

The Arabian Peninsula and the Growth of Islam

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The Arabian Peninsula and the Growth of Islam

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  1. The Arabian Peninsula and the Growth of Islam BEAUTY AND HERITAGE OF ARABIA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBhkKum4NiQ MOSQUES AROUND THE WORLD: I picked this video for the awesome PICTURES and music! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-576emfhkuU SOUTH ARABIA: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkjOIz0gx0o

  2. Vocabulary Set 1 • Arabian Peninsula • Muhammad • Oasis • Allah • Monotheism • Nomad • Ka’aba • Islam • Muslim • Hijrah • Qur’an • Sunnah • Mosque • Caliph • Shi’a Muslim • Sunni Muslim • Arid • Mecca • Medina • 5 Pillars of Islam

  3. The Arabian Peninsula

  4. The Arabian Peninsula • GEOGRAPHY • The geography of the Arabian Peninsula encouraged: • Nomadic way of life • Trade • Arid- Little rain, little farmland, covered by deserts

  5. The Arabian Peninsula • Oasis – Desert area that contains water • Trade supplies • Farming

  6. The Arabian Peninsula • Nomad- People who move place to place w/out settling permanently • Seeking water/grazing land for herds • Example: The Bedouins

  7. Nomad Example: The Bedouins • Strong, adaptable desert people • Defend from raids by other clans • Fighting skills – usedas core of Muslim armies later on

  8. The Arabian Peninsula • Geography continued • Crossroads- Where 2 or more roads meet • Arabia is the crossroads of trade routes: • Asia • Africa • Europe • Mediterranean Sea • Red Sea • Arabian Sea • Persian Gulf

  9. The Growth of Islam • RELIGION The origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad[Standard 7.2.2] • Islam – A religion based on the teachings of the prophet (a person who speaks for god) Muhammad • Islam = “peace through submission to the will of Allah” • Muslim – A person who practices Islam • Allah – Arabic word for God • Mosque – Muslim place of worship • Ka’aba – Ancient shrine (a black cube) in the center of Mecca • Arab tradition says it was built by Abraham and Ishmael as a temple to Allah

  10. The Growth of Islam Islam and the prophet Muhammad • Muhammad (510-632) – • Prophet who founded and spread Islam • Strong and charismatic • Religious, political and military leader • United diverse Arabian Peninsula • Treaties/alliances with nomadic tribes

  11. The Growth of Islam • Islam and Muhammad the Prophet • Early Life: • Orphaned, worked caravan trade, married wealthy widow @ age 25, became prosperous merchant in Mecca (famous trading city)

  12. Islam and the prophet Muhammad • “Messenger of God (610): • Gabriel the angel reveals God’s words to Muhammad during a prayer

  13. The Growth of Islam • Islam and the Prophet Muhammad • Hijrah (622) Migration/flight of Muhammad and followers to Medina (city North of Mecca) • Because Meccans persecuted (attacked) Muhammad’s faith at first • Islam gains many converts in Medina

  14. Medina Today Medina today

  15. Mecca Today

  16. The Growth of Islam • Islam and the Prophet Muhammad • Surrender of Mecca (630) • Muhammad and 10,000 Muslims force Mecca to surrender • Muhammad forgave the Meccans, dedicates Ka’aba to Allah • Death: 632 • Unified much of the Arabian Peninsula by this time

  17. The Growth of Islam • Qur’an and Sunnah:Primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law.[Standard 7.2.3] • Qur’an • Holy Book of Islam • Revealed through angel Gabriel • Sunnah • Muhammad’s words and deeds used as a guide for living

  18. The Qur’an

  19. The Growth of Islam • 5 pillars of Islam • Framework for worship and sign of commitment to the faith. • Creed{faith} (Shahada) There is only one god (Allah) and Muhammad is his prophet • Prayers (Salah)Pray 5 times a day, facing Mecca • Almsgiving (Zakat) 2.5% of income • Ramadan (Sawm)Fast(don’t eat) • Pilgrimage (Hajj) At least once in a lifetime

  20. Connections to Judaism and Christianity • “People of the Book” • Jews and Christians were tolerated because their religions share similarities with Islam • Islam, Judaism, Christianity • Believe in same god • Trace beginnings back to Abraham • Heaven, hell, final judgment day • Holy books • Judaism = Torah • Christianity = Bible • Prophets • To Muslims, Jesus is simply a prophet (NOT son of God) • Muhammad is not considered a prophet in Judaism/Christianity

  21. Islam After Muhammad’s Death • Caliphate (the first system of government established in Islam) • “MUSLIM EMPIRE” • THEOCRACY – A community governed by god (religious authority) • Caliph • secular and religious head of a Muslim community • The Rightly Guided Caliphate • First 4 Caliphs after Muhammad’s death • Followed Muhammad’s example and the Qur’an

  22. The Rightly Guided Caliphate #1 Abu Bakr #2 Umar #3 Uthman #4 Ali (ASSASSINATED) • Followed Muhammad’s example • Followed Qur’an • Used military force to unite Muslim community • Expand Muslim territory

  23. Expansion in the Age of the Caliphs

  24. Reasons for Muslim Success • Muslims = Organized, disciplined military • Byzantine/Persian Empires = already weak(fighting each other) • Muslims = Inclusion and culture blending • Byzantine/Persians persecute religions • Peoples welcome Muslims as liberators (liberate = to set somebody free)

  25. After the first 4 caliphs… • Umayyadfamily took power after death of AliFounded Umayyad dynasty (we’ll hear more about them later) • Moved capital from Medina to Damascus • Umayyads’ actions divide Islam • Some Arabs unhappy with new capital (too far) • Others thought Umayyads abandoned earlier Bedouin ways & too concerned with luxury

  26. Islam’s Schism: Sunni v. Shi’a Islam’s Schism Crisis of succession BOTH FOLLOW QUR’AN AND SUNNAH!!! • Sunni Muslim • A branch of Islam that accepts ELECTED caliphs • Followed Umayyads for peace • Shi’a Muslim • A branch of Islam that thinks caliph should always be related to Muhammad • Rejected Umayyad rule • BOTH FOLLOW QUR’AN AND SUNNAH!!!