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The Salamanca Statement

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  1. The Salamanca Statement • Probably, at present, the most important international policy document about inclusion • Actually 2 documents: • THE SALAMANCA STATEMENT • FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION ON SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION

  2. The Salamanca Statement • UNESCO meeting in Salamancain Spain 7-10 of June. -1994 • 300 participants • representing 92 governments • 25 international organisations • Gives concrete guidelines for action and responsibility

  3. The Salamanca Statement Build on: • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) • Conclusions from “The World Conference on Education for All” (1990) • United Nations “Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities” (1993)

  4. Introducing on international policy basis: • Inclusion: • Inclusive Schools • Inclusive Schooling • Integrated Education • Adaptive systems/adaptive education

  5. Recognizing that: • Every child has a fundamental right to education • Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs • Education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to meet these diversities among children • Students with special needs must have access to regular schools with adapted education • Regular schools with an inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating and preventing discriminative attitudes and building up an inclusive society

  6. National authorities/governments shall: • Improve the education system so it can include all students • Adopt the principle of inclusive education in the legislation system to enrol all children • Develop demonstration project • Establish decentralized systems and user participation in planning, monitoring and evaluation • Encourage the participation of parents and relevant user organisation • Pay attention to early identification of special needs and Early Intervention • Give relevant education, further education, training and support to teachers and other relevant professionals

  7. and…. The governments shall also • Emphasise the international cooperation within programs of education for all • Emphasise the importance of Special Needs Education as an integrated part of teacher education and training programs • Involve the NGO’s

  8. Framework for Action – 4 parts • In addition to an “introduction”– there are 3 parts: • New thinking in special needs education • Guidelines for the national level • Guidelines for regional and international level

  9. Introduction – some premises • The importance of an open process • What is all children? • More attention shall be paid to possibilities than to limitations • The education shall be adapted to the student and not opposite

  10. What is new perspective on special needs education? • Inclusion and participation assume that students with disabilities attend ordinary kindergartens and schools on the local environment • The fundamental principle is that all children are toghether as much as possible • Inclusive education of high quality should focus on: • curriculum, • organizational arrangements, • teaching strategies • resource use • Partnership with the coomunities

  11. What is new perspective on special needs education? • Inclusive education demands a focus on peers. This implies that special units, special classes and schools should be used to a limited extent, and as exception form ordinary education • Special needs education varies enormously from country to country. If a country has to have special schools they should function as resource centres for regular schools • Countries with a limited number of special schools should be advised to establish mainstream-inclusive schools

  12. What is new perspective on special needs education? • The governmental planning of education should concentrate on all persons, in all regions of the country and in all economic conditions • Special needs education policy represent a new approach. That’s why adults with disabilities should have special attention. • Girls and women are often discriminated. Women and men should have equal influence and opportunities • To make EFA effective it should be plans on the local, regional and national plan

  13. The national level – some point of special interest • Legislation should recognize the principles of EFA in primary, secondary and tertiary education • Parallel and complementary legislative measures should be adopted in the fields of health, social welfare vocational training and employment • Special attention should be paid to the needs of children with severe and multiple disabilities • CBR-programs and services should be developed in parallel with inclusive education • The organisation of effective education – particular for students with disabilities – is depending on high quality school management

  14. The national level – some point of special interest • School management includes the responsibility of effective cooperation between teachers and other experts • Each school should be responsible for each student’s development – not only the individual teacher • Further education of teachers in special needs education should be a part of a plan • A main challenge for schools are in-service training • The importance of a flexible curriculum, adapted to the children's’ needs

  15. The national level – some point of special interest • The importance of coordination of local, regional and national services and organisations • We know that the success of an incusive policy in schools are depending on early identification and intervention • Education of children with special educational needs is a shared task between parents and professionals • Parents should make the final decision concerning extra services and special needs education