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Changes wrought by coffee econ.

Changes wrought by coffee econ.

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Changes wrought by coffee econ.

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  1. Changes wrought by coffee econ. • rise of “coffee bourgeoisie” small merchants, town artisans, bank prof’ls export middle-men • shift of economic center to new coffee frontier S. Paulo state (Santos port) • investment in transport infrastructure which made coffee frontier profitable • simultaneous change in labor organization from slave to immigrant (1880s)

  2. Brazil’s first census, 1872 Population 10 million 3.8 million of European origin (38%) 4.25 free people of African origin most classified mulatto 1.5 million slaves of African origin <400,000 people of indigenous origin

  3. “Redemption of Ham,” 1890s Brazil

  4. Charles Darwin and evolution by natural selection Origin of Species, 1859 Descent of Man, 1871 “Social Darwinist” theories of racial difference followed

  5. Rockefeller Foundation director praising industry of S. Brazilians The adventurous, self-reliant Portuguese crossed with the native Indians, developed a sturdy Brazilian stock, established themselves on the narrow coastal margin at Santos, and proceeded at an early date to explore and conquer the interior. This population has been re-enforced through a tide of immigration from Europe which continues to bring these southern states hardy types of colonists—Italians, Germans, Austrians, and Poles. Japanese also are now coming in considerable numbers. These immigrants take root in the soil, and tend in the second generation to become a sturdy, white, Brazilian stock….These southern states, having the advantage of a cooler and more variable climate and of a vastly more virile population, have in their keeping the future of Brazil. It is the self-reliant white man who is pushing back the frontier and laying the foundations of a more progressive civilization. The State of São Paulo is the center and soul of this movement….The hope of the North lies in the South’s leadership, and in new blood from these States and from Europe. (1920)

  6. “Completion of the Agrarian Revolution,” 1926Diego Rivera for Ministry of Education, Mexico

  7. Identity politics in Brazil “Rather than embrace African cultural heritage…many Afro-Brazilians took their first step toward social mobility by disassociating themselves from the black masses. For most Afro-Brazilians, being black was synonymous with servitude, poverty and barbarity. Within the context of Brazilian society, distancing oneself from other blacks seemed a rational choice—the option with the greatest potential for benefits.” Kim Butler, Freedoms Given, Freedoms Won

  8. Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro

  9. Favela slums, Rio de Janeiro