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Chapter 22

Chapter 22. Reflection and Refraction of Light. A Brief History of Light. 1000 AD It was proposed that light consisted of tiny particles Newton Used this particle model to explain reflection and refraction Huygens 1678 Explained many properties of light by proposing light was wave-like.

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Chapter 22

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  1. Chapter 22 Reflection and Refraction of Light

  2. A Brief History of Light • 1000 AD • It was proposed that light consisted of tiny particles • Newton • Used this particle model to explain reflection and refraction • Huygens • 1678 • Explained many properties of light by proposing light was wave-like

  3. A Brief History of Light, cont • Young • 1801 • Strong support for wave theory by showing interference • Maxwell • 1865 • Electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light

  4. A Brief History of Light, final • Planck • EM radiation is quantized • Implies particles • Explained light spectrum emitted by hot objects • Einstein • Particle nature of light • Explained the photoelectric effect

  5. The Particle Nature of Light • “Particles” of light are called photons • Each photon has a particular energy • E = h ƒ • h is Planck’s constant • h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s • Encompasses both natures of light • Interacts like a particle • Has a given frequency like a wave

  6. Dual Nature of Light • Experiments can be devised that will display either the wave nature or the particle nature of light • In some experiments light acts as a wave and in others it acts as a particle • Nature prevents testing both qualities at the same time

  7. Geometric Optics – Using a Ray Approximation • Light travels in a straight-line path in a homogeneous medium until it encounters a boundary between two different media • The ray approximation is used to represent beams of light • A ray of light is an imaginary line drawn along the direction of travel of the light beams

  8. Ray Approximation • A wave front is a surface passing through points of a wave that have the same phase and amplitude • The rays, corresponding to the direction of the wave motion, are perpendicular to the wave fronts

  9. Reflection of Light • A ray of light, the incident ray, travels in a medium • When it encounters a boundary with a second medium, part of the incident ray is reflected back into the first medium • This means it is directed backward into the first medium

  10. Specular Reflection • Specular reflection is reflection from a smooth surface • The reflected rays are parallel to each other • All reflection in this text is assumed to be specular

  11. Diffuse Reflection • Diffuse reflection is reflection from a rough surface • The reflected rays travel in a variety of directions • Diffuse reflection makes the dry road easy to see at night

  12. Law of Reflection • The normal is a line perpendicular to the surface • It is at the point where the incident ray strikes the surface • The incident ray makes an angle of θ1 with the normal • The reflected ray makes an angle of θ1’with the normal

  13. Law of Reflection, cont • The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence • θ1= θ1’

  14. Refraction of Light • When a ray of light traveling through a transparent medium encounters a boundary leading into another transparent medium, part of the ray is reflected and part of the ray enters the second medium • The ray that enters the second medium is bent at the boundary • This bending of the ray is called refraction

  15. Refraction of Light, cont • The incident ray, the reflected ray, the refracted ray, and the normal all lie on the same plane • The angle of refraction, θ2, depends on the properties of the medium

  16. Following the Reflected and Refracted Rays • Ray  is the incident ray • Ray  is the reflected ray • Ray  is refracted into the lucite • Ray  is internally reflected in the lucite • Ray  is refracted as it enters the air from the lucite

  17. More About Refraction • The angle of refraction depends upon the material and the angle of incidence • The path of the light through the refracting surface is reversible

  18. Refraction Details, 1 • Light may refract into a material where its speed is lower • The angle of refraction is less than the angle of incidence • The ray bends toward the normal

  19. Refraction Details, 2 • Light may refract into a material where its speed is higher • The angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence • The ray bends away from the normal

  20. The Index of Refraction • When light passes from one medium to another, it is refracted because the speed of light is different in the two media • The index of refraction, n, of a medium can be defined

  21. Index of Refraction, cont • For a vacuum, n = 1 • For other media, n > 1 • n is a unitless ratio

  22. Frequency Between Media • As light travels from one medium to another, its frequency does not change • Both the wave speed and the wavelength do change • The wavefronts do not pile up, nor are created or destroyed at the boundary, so ƒ must stay the same

  23. Index of Refraction Extended • The frequency stays the same as the wave travels from one medium to the other • v = ƒ λ • The ratio of the indices of refraction of the two media can be expressed as various ratios

  24. Some Indices of Refraction

  25. Snell’s Law of Refraction • n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 • θ1 is the angle of incidence • 30.0° in this diagram • θ2 is the angle of refraction

  26. Dispersion • The index of refraction in anything except a vacuum depends on the wavelength of the light • This dependence of n on λ is called dispersion • Snell’s Law indicates that the angle of refraction made when light enters a material depends on the wavelength of the light

  27. Variation of Index of Refraction with Wavelength • The index of refraction for a material usually decreases with increasing wavelength • Violet light refracts more than red light when passing from air into a material

  28. Refraction in a Prism • The amount the ray is bent away from its original direction is called the angle of deviation, δ • Since all the colors have different angles of deviation, they will spread out into a spectrum • Violet deviates the most • Red deviates the least

  29. Prism Spectrometer • A prism spectrometer uses a prism to cause the wavelengths to separate • The instrument is commonly used to study wavelengths emitted by a light source

  30. Using Spectra to Identify Gases • All hot, low pressure gases emit their own characteristic spectra • The particular wavelengths emitted by a gas serve as “fingerprints” of that gas • Some uses of spectral analysis • Identification of molecules • Identification of elements in distant stars • Identification of minerals

  31. The Rainbow • A ray of light strikes a drop of water in the atmosphere • It undergoes both reflection and refraction • First refraction at the front of the drop • Violet light will deviate the most • Red light will deviate the least

  32. The Rainbow, 2 • At the back surface the light is reflected • It is refracted again as it returns to the front surface and moves into the air • The rays leave the drop at various angles • The angle between the white light and the violet ray is 40° • The angle between the white light and the red ray is 42°

  33. Observing the Rainbow • If a raindrop high in the sky is observed, the red ray is seen • A drop lower in the sky would direct violet light to the observer • The other colors of the spectra lie in between the red and the violet

  34. Christian Huygens • 1629 – 1695 • Best known for contributions to fields of optics and dynamics • Deduced the laws of reflection and refraction • Explained double refraction

  35. Huygen’s Principle • Huygen assumed that light is a form of wave motion rather than a stream of particles • Huygen’s Principle is a geometric construction for determining the position of a new wave at some point based on the knowledge of the wave front that preceded it

  36. Huygen’s Principle, cont • All points on a given wave front are taken as point sources for the production of spherical secondary waves, called wavelets, which propagate in the forward direction with speeds characteristic of waves in that medium • After some time has elapsed, the new position of the wave front is the surface tangent to the wavelets

  37. Huygen’s Construction for a Plane Wave • At t = 0, the wave front is indicated by the plane AA’ • The points are representative sources for the wavelets • After the wavelets have moved a distance cΔt, a new plane BB’ can be drawn tangent to the wavefronts

  38. Huygen’s Construction for a Spherical Wave • The inner arc represents part of the spherical wave • The points are representative points where wavelets are propagated • The new wavefront is tangent at each point to the wavelet

  39. Huygen’s Principle and the Law of Reflection • The Law of Reflection can be derived from Huygen’s Principle • AA’ is a wave front of incident light • The reflected wave front is CD

  40. Huygen’s Principle and the Law of Reflection, cont • Triangle ADC is congruent to triangle AA’C • θ1 = θ1’ • This is the Law of Reflection

  41. Huygen’s Principle and the Law of Refraction • In time Δt, ray 1 moves from A to B and ray 2 moves from A’ to C • From triangles AA’C and ACB, all the ratios in the Law of Refraction can be found • n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2

  42. Total Internal Reflection • Total internal reflection can occur when light attempts to move from a medium with a high index of refraction to one with a lower index of refraction • Ray 5 shows internal reflection

  43. Critical Angle • A particular angle of incidence will result in an angle of refraction of 90° • This angle of incidence is called the critical angle

  44. Critical Angle, cont • For angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, the beam is entirely reflected at the boundary • This ray obeys the Law of Reflection at the boundary • Total internal reflection occurs only when light attempts to move from a medium of higher index of refraction to a medium of lower index of refraction

  45. Fiber Optics • An application of internal reflection • Plastic or glass rods are used to “pipe” light from one place to another • Applications include • medical use of fiber optic cables for diagnosis and correction of medical problems • Telecommunications

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